Аtlas of Rare and Threatened Bryophytes
This book includes maps and descriptions of distribution and ecology of 376 species (336 maps) of most rare and threatened bryophytes on the territory of Eastern Europe. Mapping was made on 400 squares around 100 * 100 km on base geographical map system - Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) with help of original computer programs. Distribution of ehe species on the territory of 6 biogeography regions and 12 subregions are showed. This atlas may be useful for preparing of new edition of European Red Book of Bryophytes, another bryological investigations and nature protection activity.
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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF BELARUS V. F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany Oleg M. Maslovsky ATLAS OF RARE AND THREATENED BRYOPHYTES OF EASTERN EUROPE AS CANDIDATES TO NEW EUROPEAN RED LIST Minsk “Belorusskaya nauka” 2017
UDK 582.32(4-11)(084.42) Reviewers: Gennady F. Rykovsky, Dr. Sci., Victor V. Mavrishev, PhD, Tomas Hallingback, Prof. This book includes maps and descriptions of distribution and ecology of 376 species (336 maps) of most rare and threatened bryophytes on the territory of Eastern Europe. Mapping was made on 400 squares around 100 x 100 km on base geographical map system - Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) with help of original computer programs. Distribution of ehe species on the territory of 6 biogeography regions and 12 subregions are showed. This atlas may be useful for preparing of new edition of European Red Book of Bryophytes, another bryological investigations and nature protection activity. ISBN 978-985-08-2172-0 © Oleg Maslovsky, 2017 © V.F.Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany of National Academy of Sciences, 2017 © RUE «Publishing House «Belorusskaya nauka», 2017
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ..................................................4 ACKNOWLEGEMENTS ...............................................7 LIVERWORTS AND HORNWORTS.......................................8 MOSSES .......................................................28 MAIN LITHERATURE..............................................92 3
INTRODUCTION This book is a practical part of long investigation of Belarus bryoflora in the system of bryofloras of Eastern Europe. When we began this work, we understood that territory of Belarus isn’t big and it also is situated on broad between different biogeography regions and species of different geographical elements are present in its bryoflora. Because, we began mapping of distribution of bryophyte species on the territory of Eastern Europe as a whole. Methodological aspects of the approach was described in our work . This investigations may be useful for preparing of new edition of European Red Book of Bryophytes. Because, idea of preparing and publishing of “Atlas of rare and threatened bryophytes of Eastern Europe as a candidates to new European Red List”. It is included the bryophyte species, which were remarked as a candidates in . Mapping of bryophytes and creation of the Atlas was made with help of original computer programs by P. Rodionov and O. Maslovsky (Fig. 1) and on base geographical map system - Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), which is used for edition of Atlas Florae Europaeae for vascular plants . Fig. 1 Original computer programs for creation of the Atlas. Territory of Eastern Europe was divided on 400 squares around 100 x 100 km (Fig.2). Geographical broads of Europe we determinates according also Atlas Florae Europaeae, when only northern part of Caucasus is included in Europe. Mapping if Arctic islands may be as a separate specific investigation and it is not included in aims of the work. 4
Fig. 2 Territory of mapping and dividing on squares. On this time the computer date base and atlas includes more that 80 000 places (squares) of distribution of around 1400 bryophyte species. The date are based on field investigations of author in Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and Lithuania and also on more that 700 literature sources. Its included as summarizing publication of bryofloras of former USSR [44, 45, 67, 129], Belarus [96, 112, 114], Ukraine [10, 11, 21, 24, 74, 149, 150, 151, 152], Carpathian mountains , Crimea , Lithuania [61, 75], Latvia [1, 3], Estonia [58, 59], Moldova , Russia [64, 105] and some Russian regions: Arctic and Northern Russia [6, 63, 66, 130, 133, 134, 139, 155], Karelia [4, 14], Ural [36, 37], Middle European Russia [46, 47], Central Russia Upland  also as separately results of bryological investigations and countries and regional Red Books. Main part of the base literature is presented in end of Atlas. Of course, mapping of all known places of distributions of bryophytes on the biggest territory as Eastern Europe impossible, because volume of bryological literature and concrete dates constantly quickly grows, especially in last years, but collected (not full!) map information may be useful for preparing of new edition of European Red Book of Bryophytes and another briological investigations. According of Biogeographic regions in Europe , the territory of Eastern Europe was divided on 5 biogeography regions: arctic, alpine, boreal, nemoral (temperate), arid. Within these regions, according to the a detailed biogeographic map of Europe , a some subregions were identified. These subregions reflect the oceanic and continental climatic features of the area. In addition the Black Sea subtropical region was divided, having the climate and biogeographical specifics. 5
So on the territory of Eastern Europe, we analyzed the distribution of bryophytes in the following regions and subregions (Figure 3): - arctic (ARC); - alpine (ALP), including APL1 (west of Kola Peninsula), ALP2 (Ural), ALP3 (Carpathians), ALP4 (the northern foothills of the Caucasus); - boreal (BOR), including BOR-KAR (Karelia), BOR-PRI (Baltic countries, northern-west of Belarus and northern-west of Russia), BOR-TAI (northern-east of Belarus, eastern part of taiga zone of Russia); - nemoral or temperate (NEM), which is divided on western (NEM-ZAP), central (NEM-CEN) and eastern (NEM-EAS) subregions; - arid (ARI), including western (ARI-STR) and near Caspian (ARI-CAS). - Black See (BLS). Fig. 3 Biogeograaphic regions and subregions of Eastern Europe. Republic of Belarus is situated on the territory of 2 regions (boreal and nemoral) and 4 subregions: BOR-PRI, BOR-TAI, NEM-ZAP, NEM-CEN. Taxonomy name of bryophytes species was prepared according  for comfort of experts of new addition of European Red Book of Bryophytes. Authors of species are presented according [45, 64, 67, 105 and others]. After name also some wide distributed in Russian langrage bryological literature synonyms present. For each region and subregion, where bryophyte species was presented, we calculated percentage from all number squares of Eastern Europe. This get possibilities of more better understanding of geographical specific of bryophytes and for determination of it geographical elements: arctic, arcto-alpine, alpine, boreal-alpine, boreal, boreal-nemoral, nemoral, arid and cosmopolite. System of the geographical elements reflected the modern distribution of the species on the base 6
of data on the territory of only Eastern Europe. Addition investigations on the territory of all Europe and another continents get possibilities to correction of this elements for concrete species. Separately, presence and distribution of each species on the territory of Belarus are showed. For some species information about ecology present about type of substrate (soil, stones, trees, decaying wood, water, excrements), optimum of substrate trophicity (oligotrophic, oligo-me-sotrophic, mesotrophic, eu-mesotrophic, meso-eutrophic, eutrophic) and humidity (xerophyte, xero-mesophyte, mesophyte, meso-hygrophyte, hygrophyte, hydrophyte). ACKNOWLEGEMENTS I would like to great thank my scientific teacher Gennady Rykovsky and director of V.F.Kupre-vich Institute of Experimental Botany of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Alexander Pugachevsky for supporting of my investigations and publishing of this book. Special acknowledgment to my colleague and friend Peter Rodionov for creation of the computer programs of mapping. Many thanks to bryologists (past and present), which dates were fact base of the maps: A. Abolina, O. Afonina, T. Akatova, E. Andreeva, G. Bachurina, E. Baisheva, V. Bakalin, A. Bez-godov, M. Boiko, E. Borovichev, I. Czernyadjeva, I. Danilkiv, A. Dyachenko, M. Dulin, V. Fedosov, I. Goldberg, M. Ignatov, E. Ignatova, N. Ingerpuu, I. Jukoniene, L. Kannukene, N. Konstantinova, L. Kurbatova, K. Ladyzhenskaya, A. Lazarenko, A. Maksimov, Z. Mamchur, YU. Mamontov, A. Notov, T. Otnyukova, L. Partyka, A. Pidoplicko, N. Popova, A. Potemkin, R. Schljakov, A. Sa-kovich, L. Savich, V. Sereda, M. Shabeta, N. Shafigullina, T. Shubina, G. Simonov, Z. Smirnova, U. Spirina, S. Suragina, V. Teleganova, K. Teplov, K. Ulychna, K. Vellak, V. Virchenko, D. Zerov, G. Zheleznova, V. Zolotov and many others. Great thanks the ECCB Board and especially N. Hodgets, L. Soderstrom and T Hallinback for supporting of this activity. I am grateful my colleges from our Department of Plant Cadastre of the V.F.Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany for concrete help in prepare of the book and my wife Inna Emelyanova for great supporting of me during my work.
LIVERWORTS AND HORNWORTS Anastrophyllum michauxii (F.Weber) H.Buch - very rare (9 squares), mainly in Carpathian and Ural mountains. ALP=67% (numbers of mapped squares) (ALP-2=22%, ALP-3=44%), BOR=33% (BOR-TAI=33%). In Belarus: it is absent, but it was founded near in Poland (Bialowieski Park). Geo: alpine. Eco: mesophyte. Substrate: decaying wood, trees. Map 1. Aneura maxima (Schiffn.) Steph. - not good studied species in Eastern Europe. Very rare on the territory of the region (3 squares) in Karelia. But according Konstantinova & Bakalin (2009) “The record of the predominantly tropical Aneura maxima from Karelia ... seems to be erroneous. According to D. Long (pers. comm.) records of A. maxima from Europe should referred to new not yet validated taxon”. BOR=100% (BOR-KAR=100%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: ?boreal. Substrate: soil. Map 1. Aneura mirabilis (Malmb.) Wickett & Goffinet (= Cryptothallus mirabilis Malmb.) - very rare on the territory of Eastern Europe (3 squares) in Karelia and Kola peninsula of Russia, also present in Caucasus mountains (Konstantinova & Bakalin (2009). BOR=100% (BOR-KAR=100%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: boreal. Substrate: soil. Map 1. Anthoceros agrestis Paton (= Anthoceros punctatus auct. nom. L.) - occurs sporadically (40 squares) on the territory of Eastern Europe (mainly in west and central part). ALP=2% (ALP-3=2%), BOR=42% (BOR-PRI=25%, BOR-TAI=18%), NEM=55% (NEM-CEN=30%, NEM-EST=5%, NEM-ZAP=20%). In Belarus: sporadic on all territory, BOR-PRI, BOR-TAI, NEM-ZAP, NEM-CEN. Geo: nemoral. Eco: meso-eutrophic hygro-mezophyte. Substrate: soil. Map 1. Anthoceros punctatus L. - Distribution of this species in Eastern Europe is needed in additional investigations, because nomenclature mistakes may be present. It was remarked for Ukraine. Arnellia fennica (Gottsche) Lindb. - rare species, in northern part of the region (25 squares). ARC=16%, ALP=12% (ALP-2=12%), BOR=72% (BOR-KAR=36%, BOR-TAI=36%). In Belarus: is absent. Geo: boreal (?arcto-boreal). Eco: mesotrophic. Substrate: soil. It was included in Red Books of Europe (r). Map 1. Asterella saccata (Wahlenb.) A.Evans - very rare on the territory of Eastern Europe: only 1 points (Ural). It was remarked also for South Ural (Lindberg et all., 1889, Long, 2006) and for Ukraine (but without concrete place). ALP (ALP-2), In Belarus: is absent. Geo: alpine. Eco: eu-mesotrophic xerophyte. Substrate: soil, stones. It was included in Red Books of Europe (v). Map 1. Barbilophozia rubescens (R.M.Schust. & Damsh.) Kartt. & L.Soederstr. - very rare (3 squares), in northern-west part of the region: Kola peninsula. It also was remarked for Russian Arctic Islands (Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya). BOR=100% (BOR-KAR=100%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: ?arcto-boreal. Substrate: stones. Map 1. Biantheridion undulifolium (Nees) Konstant. & Vilnet (= Crossogyna undulifolia (Nees) Schljakov, = Jamesoniella undulifolia (Nees) Muell. Frib.) - very rare (only 2 squares), in Northern Ural and Bashkortostan. ARC=50%, ALP=50% (ALP-2=50%), In Belarus: is absent. Geo: ?arcto-alpine. Substrate: soil. It was included in Red Books of Europe (e). Map 1. 8
Anastrophyllum michauxii Aneura maxima Aneura mirabilis Anthoceros agrestis Arnellia fennica Asterella saccata Barbilophozia rubescens Biantheridion undulifolium Bucegia romanica Map 1. Distribution of rare and threatened bryophytes in Eastern Europe (by squares). 9
Bucegia romanica Radian - very rare on the territory of Eastern Europe: only 1 point in Carpathian mountains (Ukraine). Also it was remarked for eastern Poland. ALP=50% (ALP-3=50%), NEM=50% (NEM-ZAP=50%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: ?alpine. Eco: meso-eutrophic mesophyte. Substrate: soil, stones. It was included in Red Books of Europe (r). Map 1. Calycularia laxa Lindb. et H. Arnell. - very rare species. Only 3 squares in Eastern Europe in north of European Russia. ARC=100%. In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: Arctic. Substrate: stones. Map 2. Cephalozia affinis Lindb. ex Steph. - rare (8 squares), in northern part of the region. BOR=75% (BOR-KAR=25%, BOR-TAI=50%), NEM=25% (NEM-EST=25%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: boreal. Eco: mesophyte. Substrate: trees, decaying wood. Map 2. Cephalozia lacinulata J.B.Jack ex Spruce - very rare species (only 4 squares), in Belarus, Russia (Leningrad region) and Carpathian mountains. ALP=25% (ALP-3=33%), BOR=50% (BOR-KAR=25%, BOR-TAI=25%), NEM=25% (NEM-ZAP=25%). In Belarus: 2 localities (Belowezkaya Pustcha and Osipovichi district): NEM-ZAP, BOR-TAI. Geo: boreal. Eco: eu-mesotrophic meso-hygrophyte. Substrate: decaying wood. It was included in Red Books of Europe (v). Map 2. Cephalozia macounii (Austin) Austin - very rare (6 squares), in northern part of Russia (Leningrad, Vologda and Karelia regions) Also it was remarked by Abolina (1994) for Latvia. ALP=33% (ALP-2=33%), BOR=67% (BOR-KAR=17%, BOR-TAI=50%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: boreal . Substrate: decaying wood. Map 2. Cephalozia macrostachya Kaal. - very rare (5 squares), in northern-western part. BOR=40% (BOR-KAR=20%, BOR-PRI=20%), NEM=60% (NEM-ZAP=60%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: nemoral. Substrate: soil. Map 2. Cephaloziella arctogena (R.M.Schust.) Konstant. - very rare species (5 squares), in northern part of Eastern Europe (Russia). ALP=20% (ALP-2=20%), BOR=80% (BOR-KAR=40%, BOR-TAI=40%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: boreal (?boreal-alpine). Substrate: soil. Map 2. Cephaloziella polystratosa (R.M.Schust. & Damsh.) Konstant. (= C. divaricata var. polystratosa (R.M.Schust. & Damsh.) Potemkin) - very rare (5 squares) in northern-west part of the region. ALP=20% (ALP-1=20%), BOR=80% (BOR-KAR=60%, BOR-TAI=20%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: boreal. Substrate: soil. Map 2. Cephaloziella uncinata R.M.Schust. - very rare (6 squares), in northern part of the region. ARC=33%, ALP=17% (ALP-1=17%), BOR=50% (BOR-KAR=33%, BOR-TAI=17%). In Belarus: it is absent. Geo: ?arcto-boreal. Eco: hygrophyte. Substrate: stones. Map 2. Cladopodiella francisci (Hook.) J0rg. - rare (8 squares), in northern-western part of Russia and northern Ural. ARC=25%, ALP=12% (ALP-1=12%), BOR=62% (BOR-KAR=50%, BOR-PRI=12%), In Belarus: is absent. Geo: boreal (?arcto-boreal). Eco: mesotrophic mesohygrophyte. Substrate: stones, soil. Map 2. Crossocalyx hellerianus (Nees ex Lindenb.) Meyl. - sporadic (62 squares), in southern-eastern parts of the region is rare. ARC=3%, ALP=11% (ALP-1=3%, ALP-2=5%, ALP-3=2%, ALP-4=2%), BOR=65% (BOR-KAR=19%, BOR-PRI=18%, BOR-TAI=27%), NEM=21% (NEM-CEN=5%, NEM-EST=6%, NEM-ZAP=10%), In Belarus: sporadic, BOR-PRI, NEM-ZAP, BOR-TAI, NEM-CEN. Geo: boreal. Eco: mesotrophic hygro-mesophyte. Substrate: decaying wood. Map 3. 10
Calycularia laxa Cephalozia affinis Cephalozia lacinulata Cephalozia macounii Cephalozia macrostachya Cephaloziella arctogena Cephaloziella polystratosa Cephaloziella uncinata Cladopodiella francisci Map 2. Distribution of rare and threatened bryophytes in Eastern Europe (by squares). 11