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Успех в бизнесе: экономика по-английски

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В пособие включены оригинальные тексты на английском языке по направлениям подготовки: 38.03.01. Экономика, 38.03.02. Менеджмент, 38.05.01. Экономическая безопасность. Пособие предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы по переводу с языка оригинала на русский язык, обсуждению содержания на английском языке, развитию навыков устной речи, освоению лексического и грамматического материала. Прилагается англо-русский словарь специальных экономических терминов.
Сухова, Е. А. Успех в бизнесе: экономика по-английски : учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов аграрных вузов экономического направления / Е. А. Сухова, Т. Н. Некрасова. - 2-е изд., перераб. - Волгоград : ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2021. - 160 с. - ISBN 978-5-4479-0313-8. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1911472 (дата обращения: 02.12.2022). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство сельского хозяйства Российской Федерации 

Департамент образования, научно-технологической политики  

и рыбохозяйственного комплекса 

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное 

учреждение высшего образования 

«Волгоградский государственный аграрный университет» 

 

Кафедра «Иностранные языки» 

 
 

Е. А. Сухова  

Т. Н. Некрасова 

 
 

УСПЕХ В БИЗНЕСЕ: 

ЭКОНОМИКА ПО-АНГЛИЙСКИ 

 

Учебное пособие  

по английскому языку для студентов аграрных вузов  

экономического направления 

 

Издание 2-е, переработанное 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Волгоград 

Волгоградский ГАУ 

2021 
УДК 811.111 
ББК 81.2 Англ 
С-91 

 
 

Рецензенты: 

кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры германской и романской 
филологии ФГАОУ ВО «Волгоградский государственный университет» 
А. В. Аржановская; кандидат педагогических наук, доцент 
кафедры «Иностранные языки» ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ           
Н. Д. Машлыкина  

 
 

Сухова, Елена Александровна 

С-91   Успех в бизнесе: экономика по-английски: учебное пособие по 
английскому языку для студентов аграрных вузов экономического направления / 
Е. А. Сухова, Т. Н. Некрасова. – Издание 2-е, переработанное. – 
Волгоград: ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2021. – 160 с. 
 
 
ISBN 978-5-4479-0313-8 
 
 

В пособие включены оригинальные тексты на английском языке 

по направлениям подготовки: 38.03.01. Экономика, 38.03.02. Менеджмент, 
38.05.01. Экономическая безопасность. 

Пособие предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы 
по переводу с языка оригинала на русский язык, обсуждению 
содержания на английском языке, развитию навыков устной речи, освоению 
лексического и грамматического материала. Прилагается англо-
русский словарь специальных экономических терминов. 
 

 

УДК 811.111 

ББК 81.2 Англ 

 
 
ISBN 978-5-4479-0313-8
© ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский 
ГАУ, 2021
© Сухова Е. А., Некрасова Т. Н., 
2021
Unit 1. 

 

THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT  

(РОЛЬ ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВА) 

 

Having mentioned the effect of government tax policy on the income 

distribution, it's necessary to examine in greater detail the role of the gov-
ernment in society. In every society governments provide such services as 
national defence, police, public education, firefighting services, and the 
administration of justice. In addition, governments through budget make 
transfer payments to some members of society. 

Transfer payments are payments made to individuals without requir-

ing the provision of any service in return. Examples are social security, re-
tirement pennsions, unemployment benefits, and, in some countries, food 
stamps. Governminent  expenditure, whether on the provision of goods and 
services (defence, police) or on transfer payments, is chiefly financed by 
imposing taxes, although some (small) residual component may be fi-
nanced by government mowing. Tabl. 2 compares the role of the govern-
ment in four countries. 

In each case, we look at four measures of government spending as a 

percentage of national income: spending on the direct provision of goods 
and services for the public, transfer payments, interest on the national debt, 
and total spending. 

 

Tablе 2 – Government Spending as a Percentage of National Income 

Countru
Purchase of goods

and services

Transfer
payments

Debt

interest
Total

%
%
%
%

UK
23,0
17,2
5,1
45,3

Japan
14,9
12,7
4,6
32,2

USA
20,1
12,2
4,8
37,1

Italy
27,0
23,0
9,2
59,4

 

Italy is a "big-govemment" country. Its government spending is large 

and it needs to raise correspondingly large tax revenues. In contrast, Japan 
has a much smaller government sector and needs to raise correspondingly 
less tax revenue. These differences in the scale of government activity rela-
tive to national income reflect differences in the way different countries al-
locate their resources among compliting uses. 
Goverments spend part of their revenue on particular goods and ser-

vices such as tanks, schools and public safety. They directly affect what is 
produced. Japans low share of government spending on goods and services 
in Tabl. 2 reflects the very low level of Japanese spending on defence. 

Governments affect for whom output is produced through their tax 

and in transfer payments. By taxing the rich and making transfers to the 
poor, the govrnment  ensures that the poor are allocated more of what is 
produced than would otherwise be the case; and the rich get corresponding-
ly less. 

The government also affects how goods are produced, for example 

through the regulations it imposes. Managers of factories and mines must 
obey safety  requirements even where these are costly to implement, firms 
are prevented from freely polluting the atmosphere and rivers, offices and 
factories are banned in attractive residential parts of the city. 

The scale of government activities in the modern economy is highly 

controversial. In the UK the government takes nearly 40 per cent of nation-
al income in taxes. Some governments take a larger share, others a smaller 
share. Different shares will certainly affect the questions what, how and 
for whom, but some people believe that a large government sector makes 
the economy inefficient, reducing the number of goods that can be produced 
and eventually allocated to consumers. 

It's commonly asserted that high tax rates reduce the incentive to 

work. If half of all we earn goes to the government, we might prefer to 
work fewer hours a week and spend more time in the garden or watching 
TV. That is one possibility, but there is another one: if workers have in 
mind a target after-tax income, e.g. to have at least sufficient to afford a 
foreign holiday every year, they will have to work more hours to meet this 
target when taxes are higher. 

Whether on balance high taxes make people work more or less re-

mains an open question. Welfare payments and unemployment benefit are 
more likely to reduce incentives to work since they actually contribute to 
target income. If large-scale government activity leads to important disin-
centive effects, government activity will affect not only what, how, and for 
whom goods are produced, but also how much is produced by the economy 
as a whole. 

This discussion of the role of the government is central to the process 

by which society allocates its scarce resources. It also raises a question. Is 
it inevitable that the government plays a prominent part in the process by 
which society decides how to allocate resources between competing de-
mands? This question lies at the heart of economics. 
VOCABULARY NOTES  
having mentioned упомянув, рассмотрев  
government tax policy налоговая политика государства  
to examine in greater detail рассмотреть более подробно  
to provide service оказать услугу  
national defence национальная оборона  
firefighting service противопожарная служба  
administration of justice отправление правосудия  
to make transfer payments осуществлять трансфертные платежи 
without requiring the provision of any service in return не требуя 
ответных услуг 

social security социальное обеспечение (за счет государственных 
налогов) 

retirement pensions пенсии за выслугу лет  
unemployment benefit (syn. dole) пособие по безработице  
to be, live on the dole жить на пособие по безработице  
food stamps – талоны на продовольствие 
in impose taxes – облагать налогами  
residual component – остаточная часть 
To be financed by government borrowing финансировать правительство 
иными займами 

direct provision of goods and services for the public прямое (непосредственное) 
снабжение (обеспечение) граждан товарами и услугами 


Interest on the national debt – проценты по национальному долгу 
Сorrespondingly соответственно 
the scale of government activity размах (масштаб) государственной 
деятельности 

relative to в отношении чего-либо  
toreflect differences отражать различия  
to affect directly непосредственно влиять  
low share низкая (малая) доля 
to affect through tax and transfer payments оказывать воздействие 
через систему налогообложения и трансфертные платежи 

to ensure that обеспечивать такое положение, при котором... 
Then would otherwise be the case как было бы в противном случае 
to impose regulations издавать административные положения, 

постановления, распоряжения 

in obey safety requirements соблюдать требования безопасности 
to be costly to implement использование (применение) обходится 
дорого 
to pollute freely безнаказанно загрязнять 
to ban (syn. to prohibit) запрещать 
residential parts of the city жилые части города 
to be highly controversial быть крайне неоднозначным 
a large/small share большая/малая доля, часть 
to share делить, разделять с кем-либо, e.g. 1) to share smb's 

views, 2) to share a room with a classmate 

to make the economy inefficient снижать эффективность экономики, 
hi п. экономику неэффективной 

eventually (syn. at last) в конце концов, в конечном счете 
It's commonly asserted принято считать, по всеобщему утверждению 


the incentive to work стимул, мотивация к работе 
to earn (money) зарабатывать (деньги) 
to earn one's living зарабатывать на жизнь 
a target after-tax income целевой, базовый, чистый доход (после 

выплаты налогов) 

on balance с учетом всего вышесказанного, в конечном счете  
welfare payments – государственные пособия (напр., по безработице, 
по страхованию) 

since (syn. as, for, because) поскольку, так как 
to contribute to вносить вклад в 
large-scale government activity широкомасштабная деятельность 
правительства 

to raise (syn. to bring up) a question поднять вопрос 
to be inevitable неизбежно 
to lie at the heart of economics быть в самом центре экономики  

Assignments 

I. Suggest the Russian equivalents 
to obey safety requirements; governments take a larger/smaller 

share; to make the economy inefficient; measures of government spending; 
interest on the national debt; total spending; to allocate resources between 
competing demands 

II. Replace the parts in italics by synonyms 
it's generally declared; managers of factories must obey the re-

quirements; government directly influences what is produced; to bring up a 
question; to collect taxes; government's expenditure is financed by impos-
ing taxes. 

III. Find the terms in the text, which describe the following: 
* money paid to people without asking for a service in return 
* money paid to people when they stop working 
* money paid to people who have no work 
* money owed by the government of a country 
* money received by governments from taxation 
* money a worker keeps after paying taxes 
IV. 
Using the information in the text, say if these statements cor-

rect or incorrect 

* Governments do not make free transfer payments. 
* Food stamps are an example of a transfer payment. 
* Most government income comes from borrowing. 
* Japan raises more taxes than Italy. 
* Japan spends very little on defence. 
* The poor get more of what is produced through taxation and 

transfer payments. 

* Governments do not affect how goods are produced. 
* Nobody questions the scale of government economic activity. 
* Many people believe that high taxes result in people not wanting 

to work so hard. 

V. 
Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text 

1. Having mentioned the effect of government  
 on the  income 

distribution, it's necessary to examine in greater detail the role of the 

government in society. 

2. Government expenditure is chiefly financed by            taxes. 
3. Italy's government spending is large and it needs to 
 
cor-

respondingly large tax revenues. 

4. These differences in the scale of government activity relative to

 _________________________________________  reflect differences in 
the way different countries allocate their resources among  uses. 

5. By taxing the rich and making transfers to the poor, the govern-

ment _______________________________________ that the poor are al-
located more of what is produced than would otherwise be the case. 

6. Managers of factories and mines must safety requirements. 
7. Offices and factories are in attractive residential parts of the city. 
8. 
  of government activities in the modern economy is highly 

controversial. 

9. Different  
will certainly affect the questions what, how and 

for whom. 

10. A large government sector makes the economy inefficient, reduc-

ing the number of goods that can be allocated to consumers. 

11. 
 
that high tax rates reduce the incentive to work. 

12. Welfare payments and unemployment benefit are more likely to 

reduce        to work since they actually contribute to 
   . 
VI. 
Find in the text English equivalents for the following 

пенсии за выслугу лет; пособие по безработице; продовольственные 
карточки (талоны); облагать налогом; правительственные займы; 
налоговая политика правительства; распределение доходов; переводные (
трансфертные) платежи; взимать налоги; собирать налоговые 
поступления; принято считать (по всеобщему утверждению); уменьшать 
заинтересованность в работе; целевой (плановый) чистый доход 
после уплаты налогов. 

VII. Answer the questions 
1. What are transfer payments? Give some examples. 
2. Using Tabl. 2 compare the UK and the USA on the same basis. 
3. In what way can governments affect what and for whom is pro-

duced? 

4. Why does a large government sector make the economy ineffi-

cient? 

5. What are the two possibilities of responding to high tax rates on 

the part of workers? 

6. What is the possible outcome of large-scale government activity? 
7. Summarise in your own words the arguments for and against high 

taxes. 

VIII. Translate using the active possible 
1. Переводные платежи, к которым относятся социальное обеспечение, 
выплата пенсий за выслугу лет, пособия по безработице и т. 
д., непосредственно влияют на налоговую политику правительства. 

2. Правительственные расходы (2 варианта) в основном финансируются 
за счет налогообложения, поэтому чем больше сумма расходов (
2 варианта), тем больше налоговых поступлений необходимо 
государству. 

3. Степень участия государства в делах экономики может быть 

большей или меньшей. 

4. Таким образом, государство играет важную роль в распределении 
ограниченных ресурсов общества. 
Unit 2. 

 

THE PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY FRONTIER 

(ГРАНИЦЫ ВОЗМОЖНОСТЕЙ ПРОИЗВОДСТВА) 

 

Let's turn to the most important tool for an economist – the produc-

tion possibility frontier. This frontier shows the maximum combinations of 
output that the economy can produce, if it uses all its available scarce re-
sources. 

The easiest way to explain it is to complete a figure. First, the verti-

cal axis or line, is labelled "food output'. The units of food output run from 
nought at the bottom to 25 at the top, entering the units of food output in 
lives: 0, 5, 10, etc. Along the horizontal axis (or the bottom line) we have 
units of film output. Let's enter in the units of film output in fives again, this 
time up to 30. 

Suppose we have an economy with only food and film industries. 

Now, if we put all the workers into producing food, we shall produce 25 
units of food, but no units of film. We can mark this on the diagram with 
point A - no lilni, 25 units of food. It means point A comes on the vertical 
line at the number 25. Now, at the other extreme, if the economy puts all 
its workers into producing film, it will produce 30 units, but it will not pro-
duce any food. So, the next point is on the bottom, horizontal line, at 30 
units. Let's label it as point E. 

These two points, A and E, are the two extreme points of the produc-

tion possibility frontier. Let's put in three more points. Point В is where the 
economy is producing 22 units of food and 9 units of film. Point С is where 
the economy is producing 17 points of both film and food. And, finally, 
point D is where we have 10 units of food and 24 units of film. Now draw 
a line joining all these points together, from A to E. The line drawn is not a 
straight tine, it's a concave curve. It is this concave curve that is called the 
production possibility frontier. 

The production possibility frontier represents a trade-off. More of 

one commodity, food or film, means less of the other, and this is because of 
the law of diminishing returns. It states that if, in the production of a 
commodity, one factor of production is increased by stages while the other 
factors are kept unchanged, the stage will sooner or later be reached where 
each further addition to the increasing factor will produce a smaller and 
smaller increase in output. 

In our example, movements from A to B, to С and so on along the 

curve involve the transfer of one or more workers from one industry to the 
other, say, from food production to film production. The number of work-
ers in the film industry increases, and so does the film output, but on the 
whole each additional worker produces less additional film. That is to say, 
each transfer reduces output per person in the film industry. At the same 
time a decrease in the food industry can be observed. So with each transfer 
we get less additional film output and have to give up increasing amounts 
of food output. That's why a society faces the problem of choosing between 
different products, as the scarcity of available resources does not allow it to 
increase the production of one good without decreasing the production of 
the other. As all the resources are scarce, points outside the frontier (point 
F in the example) represent the level of production unattainable at the giv-
en stage of development. On the contrary, it is inefficient to produce with-
in the frontier (point G in the example), as it means poor management of 
production. By moving on to the frontier, society could have more of some 
goods without having less of any other good. 

VOCABULARY NOTES 
a tool инструмент 
output объем производства 
a figure чертеж, рисунок 
the vertical axis (line) вертикальная ось 
to label обозначить 
food output количество произведенных (объем производства) 

продовольственных товаров  

nought ноль 
the horizontal axis (the bottom line) горизонтальная ось 
film output количество произведенной (объем производства) 

пленки 

at the other extreme на другом полюсе 
to draw a line joining all these points together провести линию, 

соединяющую все эти точки 

a straight line прямая линия 
a concave curve вогнутая кривая (ant. convex – выпуклый)  
a trade-off альтернатива, выбор 
the law of diminishing returns закон сокращающейся доходности 
the production of a commodity производство товара  
by stages постепенно 
each further addition каждое последующее дополнение  
an increase in output увеличение объема производства  
to involve the transfer включать в себя, подразумевать перемещение  


to reduce output per person сокращать выработку на одного человека  

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