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Сельское хозяйство

Основная коллекция
Содержатся тексты на английском языке, в которых освещаются общие сведения о земледелии, а также упражнения для закрепления навыков говорения. Предназначено для обучающихся по направлениям подготовки: 35.03.04 Агрономия, 35.03.10 Ландшафтная архитектура, 35.03.01 Лесное дело, 35.03.03 Агрохимия и агропочвоведение всех форм обучения.
Рыльщикова, Л. М. Сельское хозяйство : учебное пособие / Л. М. Рыльщикова. - Волгоград: ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2021. - 92 с. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1911468 (дата обращения: 29.11.2022). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство сельского хозяйства Российской Федерации Департамент образования, научно-технологической политики и рыбохозяйственного комплекса
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Волгоградский государственный аграрный университет»

Инженерно-технологический факультет

Кафедра «Иностранные языки»

Л. М. Рыльщикова



Волгоград Волгоградский ГАУ 2021
УДК 811.111.1
ББК81.2 Англ.
Р - 95

кандидат педагогических наук, декан факультета дополнительного образования АНО ВО «Волгоградский гуманитарный институт» С. Н. Никитенко; кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «Иностранные языки» Волгоградского государственного аграрного университета Т. Н. Некрасова

     Рыльщикова, Любовь Михайловна
Р - 95 Сельское хозяйство: учебное пособие / Л. М. Рыльщикова. -Волгоград: ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2021. - 92 с.

      Содержатся тексты на английском языке, в которых освещаются общие сведения о земледелии, а также упражнения для закрепления навыков говорения.
      Предназначено для обучающихся по направлениям подготовки: 35.03.04 Агрономия, 35.03.10 Ландшафтная архитектура, 35.03.01 Лесное дело, 35.03.03 Агрохимия и агропочвоведение всех форм обучения.

УДК 811.111.1
ББК81.2 Англ.

                         © ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2021
                         © Рыльщикова Л. М., 2021

L.M. Rylshchikova




Solanum melongena
     From the family Solanaceae, the family of the sun, the eggplant (or aubergine or brinjal) originated in tropical Asia. India alone has approximately 20 indigenous species. Several species are known to have been cultivated in China by the 5th century ВС, and eggplants made their way to northern Africa with Arab travelers before reaching Spain in the 15th century.
     While eggplants were sub-tropical to tropical in origin, many varieties have been developed that will thrive in areas with warm summers which consistently reach temperatures of at least 70°F (21°C).
     Eggplants can come in the most beautiful array of colors and shapes, though the large purple oval form is the most commonly known. Eggplants range from tiny emerald-green pea-sized Thai varieties used in the famous
     Thai green curries to slender purple finger-shaped Japanese varieties, globose deep-orange varieties, ivory eggs, the beautiful purple and white striped fruits found in sunny Mediterranean markets, and huge rose-pink striped varieties of the most delicate flavor and texture.

Growing and Harvesting
     The culture of eggplants is similar to that for peppers. Seeds are planted 8-10 weeks before moving seedlings to the garden. As eggplants are particularly cold-sensitive, planting out should take place at least 2 and preferably 3 weeks after the last frost date for your area. In the tropics, they can be grown year round. There is no advantage to rushing planting out as plants tend not to move ahead until the days are reliably warm, and fruit will not set when temperatures fall below 70°F (21°C). Seedlings should be well hardened off and spaced 18-24 in (45-60 cm) apart in rows approximately 3 ft (1 m) apart. Mulch should not be applied until the soil has warmed up. In cool districts some growers use black plastic over the soil to absorb the sun's warmth and increase the soil temperature, replacing the plastic with straw mulch once the temperature of the soil has risen adequately.

      To encourage production, pick fruit as they ripen. With most varieties, large fruits are not the highest quality. When sliced, the seed should be milky in color. Brown seeds are fully matured and can be dried and saved for next year's planting, but the fruit from which they came is overripe.
      The fruits are ready for harvest when the skin is fully colored for type with a glossy skin, and yield to gentle pressure.

Trouble Shooting
      If the leaves of young plants appear to be shot-holed, various leafchewing insects are responsible. Derris dust or pyrethrum should be used.
      In the United States the Colorado potato beetle has become a problem and is controlled organically by inspecting below the leaves and squashing any orange egg masses. The beetle chews beneath the leaves and can be controlled by removing the beetle and crushing any adults or egg masses.
      The most serious fungal problem is soil-borne verticillium wilt, which should be suspected if leaves on a plant curl and wilt, and the edges yellow. Remove the infected plant from the garden. This disease is best controlled by practicing crop rotation for the family Solanaceae in your garden.

Recommended Varieties
      'Burgundy' syn. Osaka Honnoga - One of the most cold-resistant varieties, capable of withstanding light frosts, the tall, to 4 ft (1.2 m), plant bears burgundy fruits up to 7 1/2 in (18 cm) long.
      'De Barbentane' syn. Debarbentane - The traditional eggplant used to make ratatouille, and named for century French variety bearing long, cylindrical, shiny, black-purple fruits.
      'Early Long Purple' - The slender, dark purple fruits, harvested when 8 in (20 cm) long and 1 in (2.5 cm) wide, are ideal for many Asian dishes, for frying and pickling, and are tender and well flavored.
      A Taiwanese variety, Pintong Long', is of similar shape with rosy purple fruits up to 14 in (35 cm) long. It is hardy and disease resistant, maturing in 90 days from seed.
      'Imperial Black Beauty' - This variety, developed in 1910, remains the market standard and bears about 8 large, deepest purple, smooth oval fruits of excellent flavor. It is a good choice for areas that do not greatly exceed 70°F (21°C) in summer as it requires less warmth than most.

       'Listada De Gandia' - This is an excellent variety for warm to hot summer areas and is drought tolerant. The fruit is egg-shaped and up to 6 in (15 cm) long with beautiful white skin irregularly striped with purple. The thin non-bitter skin does not need to be peeled before cooking.
       'Louisiana Long Green' syn. Green Banana - This variety is excellent in hot, humid areas yet surprisingly is resistant to light frosts. It bears long, slender, pale green fruits, up to 71/2 in (18 cm), striped cream at the end.
       'Rosa Bianca' - This old Italian variety bears large, squat, pearshaped fruit of soft lavender-pink over white and has meaty, creamy, superbly flavored flesh.
       'Thai Green' syn. Thai Long Green and Elephant Tusk - This traditional variety from Thailand has very long, up to 14 in (35 cm), slender, cylindrical, light green fruits borne ablundantly on sturdy 2 ft (60 cm) plants. The flesh is mild flavored and tender.
       'Thai Green Pea' - This very distinctive variety is only suitable for hot, humid summer areas. It bears clusters of tiny, round, green fruits about 1 /2 in (1-1.2 cm) in diameter on 4 ft (1.2 m) bushes. It is the classic ingredient in Thai green curries.
       'Tiger Stripe' syn. Lao Green Stripe - A traditional Laotian variety now quite widely available, bearing prolific quantities of small 1 in (2.5 cm) globose cream and green tiger-striped fruits that are well flavored, non-bitter and seedy. A related type from the region is of similar size and shape but striped lavender and white, while another is pure lavender. Bushes grow up to 4 ft (1.2 m).
       'Turkish Orange' syn. Turkish Italian 5. integrifolium - This variety is sometimes called the 'African Scarlet Eggplant' or the 'Tomatoes of the Jews of Constantinople'. The Ladinos, a Jewish tribe, are believed to have originally collected this variety in Northern Africa before they were expelled from Timbuktu с. 1400 A.D. From there, they travelled to Spain where they were evicted с 1500 A.D., moving on to their final home in Constantinople (now modern Istanbul). The variety grows to 3 ft 3 in (1 m) and is sturdy, producing up to 25 spherical fruit up to 4 in (10 cm) across, with quite seedy white flesh that is fragrant with excellent flavor. They are usually picked green and are excellent in curries.
       A number of red or orange skinned varieties are popular in Asia, including 'Sweet Red' and 'Small Ruffled Red' ('Red Ruffles' and 'Hmong Red').

      'Violetta di Firenze' - A beautiful variety with very large, squat, rounded fruit, deep lavender striped with white. Excellent fried or stuffed.
      'White Beauty' - A productive variety for hot, humid areas bearing egg-shaped fruit up to 6 in (15 cm) in diameter with white skin and well flavored creamy-white flesh.


      Otherwise alluded to by the unflattering epithet of 'the stinking rose', garlic is now one of the most fashionable of foods. Festivals and restaurants are quite rightly dedicated to it, and life without garlic is unthinkable for many people on the planet. It is without doubt the most fashionable and sought after allium in North America today. The town of Gilroy in California claims, probably correctly, to be the world's largest producer. Garlic wine, garlic ice-cream, garlic candy-anything is possible in Gilroy.
      Apart from its immense culinary importance, garlic is a significant natural medicine around the world and the subject of much research. It has significant antibiotic and antibacterial properties. In World War I, in the absence of the as yet undiscovered penicillin, surgeons used garlic juice to prevent field wounds turning septic. It has been used in outbreaks of cholera and plague. It is also used to expel intestinal worms and ticks, and as a prophylactic in lead poisoning.
      Ongoing research is confirming that the juice lowers blood sugar levels in diabetic patients, dilates blood vessels and as a result reduces high blood pressure, and reduces cholesterol levels in the blood. It is also a diuretic, and is considered effective as a remedy for constipation. In the form of a syrup, it is used as an expectorant. As if all this were not enough, garlic is one of the few dietary sources of selenium, a powerful antioxidant that acts to prevent the free radical damage to cells which contributes to the aging process.
      Garlics are divided botanically into two groups, those with 'soft necks' which belong to the var. sativum, and those called 'hardnecks', referred to as Rocambole, serpent garlic, Ophio garlic, or Spanish garlic which belong to the var. ophioscorodon.
      Garlic does not exist in the wild, although it is closely related to A. longicuspis. It no longer produces fertile seed and is entirely dependent on humans for its propagation, a true symbiotic relationship of immense mutual benefit.

Growing and Harvesting
      This group is propagated by planting single plump cloves taken from around the edge of the bulb. (The small inner cloves often simply enlarge during the growing season rather than dividing to produce a number of new cloves.) The soil is prepared as for onions and needs to be very freely draining and formed into raised beds.
      In cool climates, cloves are planted in spring. They require a long growing season, and sometimes in cool, short season climates they will simply form a solid bulb in their first year, splitting into multiple cloves in their second year. The plants can also be subject to damage by severe frosts. The best way to overcome these problems is to initially plant the cloves individually into small pots and place them into a cold frame until the end of winter by which time they will have filled the pot with roots. Ideally, garlic should be planted into cool soil, so there is no need to wait for the soil to warm up past 50°F (10°C). They are then tapped out of the pots and planted in rows in the open, having gained a couple of months growing time. In warm, longer season areas, garlic is planted in late fall to be harvested the following mid to late summer. Plant the cloves vertically with the pointed tip covered by about 1 in (2.5 cm) of soil. A distance of 6 in (15 cm) between plants and twice that between rows is ideal. It is important to maintain weed-free beds.
      The green tops of the growing plants are gourmet food, with a mild, garlicky scent delicious in a stir fry and braised dishes, or finely chopped in omelettes, scrambled eggs, and soups. It is well worth sacrificing a few plants for these delights. When the leaves turn yellow the garlic is ready for harvesting and the bulbs should be lifted, and left to dry out on top of the soil for a couple of days. They can then be brought in to a warm, dry, well-aired place to complete the curing process. If the bulbs are to be braided, they should be left until the tops are thoroughly dry when they will resemble raffia.

Hardnecks or Rocambole
      These are propagated by planting the topset bulbils in the same manner as onion sets. They are perennial and are usually left in the ground for two years before lifting and harvesting. They prefer cooler, moister, richer conditions and are extremely cold hardy.

Recommended Cultivars

      'California Early' - This is an important market cultivar, with 10-12 plump, even sized, mild flavored cloves in a flattened bulb, easily peeled, and of excellent appearance. The skin is papery white, streaked with purple, off-white skin. It stores for only 4-6 months.
      'Chets' - This excellent keeping garlic is a reselected strain of 'Italian Purple' and is a large artichoke type (cloves arranged in dense tiers, superficially resembling the buds of globe artichokes) with 15-20 fairly mildly flavored cloves per bulb. The skin is papery white with streaks of purple.
      'Clermont Ferrand' - From the Massif Central of France, a large cloved garlic adapted to cold weather and poorer soils.
      'Inchelium Red' - This extraordinary heirloom variety was found on the Coleville Indian Reservation at Inchelium, Washington, U.S. It has superb flavor and is a very productive, extremely vigorous artichoke variety. The bulbs are marbled with reddish-purple and the cloves white.
      'Italian Red' - The garlic of connoiseurs, with an outstandingly strong flavor and fragrance. The bulbs are very large and long keeping, the cloves large, even, plump, red skinned, and easily peeled.
       'Early Italian Red' is an artichoke type with somewhat smaller bulbs, reddish-purple color, milder flavor, excellent for braiding, and is harvested two weeks earlier.
      'Purple' - This is an exported Chilean variety, also grown in California, with beautiful, rich purple, medium-sized bulbs that are superbly flavored.
      'Silverskin’ - This is a classic culinary garlic and one of the finest of the white skinned types, forming large, firm, long-keeping, white bulbs with reddish-purple, strongly flavored cloves.

Hardnecks or Rocamboles
      Around 15 named varieties are readily available commercially, of which two varieties are listed here.
      ‘German Red Garlic’ - This is a medieval garlic still available in Europe, and brought to North America by 18th century German settlers. It is now disseminated by specialist suppliers, and grows up to 6 ft (1.8 m), forming a large bright purple basal bulb of 8-15 strongly flavored, lemon fleshed cloves. It also produces large topsets. This variety thrives on cold. It is not a long keeper.

      ‘Spanish Roja’ - Very widely available and popular, this is a gourmet garlic forming a very large, reddish skinned bulb with approximately 10 cloves per bulb. The cloves are easy to peel and have an intense fragrance and flavor. This is a very winter hardy variety, an heirloom from Portland, Oregon, and will not grow well outside cold areas.


      Globe Onion and Spring Onion A cepa; Leek A porrum syn A ampeloprasum var. porrum, A a. babingtonii; Potato Onion A cepa; Shallot A cepa; Tree Onion A cepa var. proliferum; Welsh Onion A fistulosum; The Other Alliums
      Of all the vegetables grown in home gardens, the onion tribe are the most popular. They are close relatives of the lily family and number around 300 species in the genus Allium, of which around 70 are cultivated while many of the others are wild harvested. They all share in varying degrees that hot, mouth-watering, savoury pungency that has made them indispens-ible to cooking worldwide. Also included here is the very closely related leek. The importance of onions in medicine is another reason for their popularity over many thousands of years; they are the perfect example of Hippocrate's recommendation 2,400 years ago: 'Let food be your medicine, and medicine be your food'.
      Onion soup was considered a prime restorative for ladies in the 19th century and the widespread aphrodisiac reputation of the onion family has done nothing to detract from its popularity.
      'Onions are the truffles of the poor.' The soft tissued onion left little behind for archeologists to find, and the origins of onion domestication remain guesswork. Some believe that onions were first domesticated in the area between modern Iran and Pakistan, but other authorities believe that domestication began in central Asia. Certainly, onions were in cultivation in Egypt 3,500 years ago, and were among the provisions left for the dead in tombs. In a text from 2,400 B.C. which told of the ploughing of a city governor's field, there is evidence that the Sumerians were growing onions a millennium before that. The Romans reputedly introduced the onion from Egypt, and excavations in Pompeii unearthed evidence of a field of onions, the empty globe-shaped depressions marking the exact site where Pliny the Elder had described them to be flourishing.

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