Технология пищевых продуктов по-английски
Пособие включает в себя текстовые материалы по технологии переработки продукции растениеводства и животноводства, организации общественного питания, различные лексико-грамматические упражнения и задания по контролю и самоконтролю, направленные на формирование коммуникативных навыков. Предлагаемые тексты и задания позволяют не только развивать и совершенствовать навыки владения иностранным языком, но и способствуют формированию профессиональной направленности в обучении студентов, интереса к будущей профессии. Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы обучающимся по направлениям: 35.03.07 Технология производства и переработки сельскохозяйственной продукции, 19.03.04 Технология продукции и организация общественного питания.
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Министерство сельского хозяйства Российской Федерации Департамент образования, научно-технологической политики и рыбохозяйственного комплекса Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Волгоградский государственный аграрный университет» Инженерно-технологический факультет Кафедра «Иностранные языки» И. А. Левченко А. С. Захарова Т. Е. Иванова ТЕХНОЛОГИЯ ПИЩЕВЫХ ПРОДУКТОВ ПО-АНГЛИЙСКИ Учебно-методическое пособие для обучающихся по направлениям подготовки: 35.03.07 Технология производства и переработки сельскохозяйственной продукции, 19.03.04 Технология продукции и организация общественного питания Волгоград Волгоградский ГАУ 2021
УДК 811.111 ББК 81.2 Англ. Л-38 Рецензенты: кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, декан факультета дополнительного образования НОЧУ ВО «Волгоградский гуманитарный институт» С.Н. Никитенко; кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры « Иностранные языки» ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ Т. Н. Некрасова Левченко, Инна Алексеевна Л-38 Технология пищевых продуктов по-английски: учебно- методическое пособие для обучающихся по направлениям подготовки: 35.03.07 Технология производства и переработки сельскохозяйственной продукции; 19.03.04 Технология продукции и организация общественного питания. / И. А. Левченко, А. С. Захарова, Т. Е. Иванова. – Волгоград: ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2021. – 196 с. Пособие включает в себя текстовые материалы по технологии переработки продукции растениеводства и животноводства, организации общественного питания, различные лексико-грамматические упражнения и задания по контролю и самоконтролю, направленные на формирование коммуникативных навыков. Предлагаемые тексты и задания позволяют не только развивать и совершенствовать навыки владения иностранным языком, но и способствуют формированию профессиональной направленности в обучении студентов, интереса к будущей профессии. Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы обучающимся по направлениям: 35.03.07 Технология производства и переработки сельскохозяйственной продукции, 19.03.04 Технология продукции и организация общественного питания. УДК 811.111 ББК 81.2 Англ ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2021 Левченко И. А., Захарова А. С., Иванова Т. Е., 2021
PART 1 FOOD TECHNOLOGY TEXT 1 WHAT IS FOOD TECHNOLOGY? affordable – доступный (по цене) agriculture – земледелие, сельское хозяйство appearance – внешний вид composition – состав digestible – перевариваемый fishing – рыболовный промысел food preservation – сохранение, консервирование пищевых продуктов food processing – технология производства (обработки) пищевых продуктов food process engineering – техника пищевых процессов food science – наука о пищевых продуктах involve – включать, вовлекать nutritive value – питательная ценность palatable – вкусный poisoning – отравление prevent – предотвращать, препятствовать
replace – заменять, замещать safe – безвредный safety – безвредность, безопасность species – вид, разновидность spoilage – порча storage – хранение, хранилище technique – метод, способ, технический прием undesirable – нежелательный Food Technology is a branch of food science that deals with the pro- duction processes that make foods. Food Technology or Food Tech for short is the application of food science to the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use of safe, nutritious, and wholesome food. Food scientists and food technologists study the physical, microbio- logical, and chemical makeup of food. Depending on their area of speciali- zation, Food Scientists may develop ways to process, preserve, package, or store food, according to industry and government specifications and regula- tions. Consumers seldom think of the vast array of foods and the research and development that has resulted in the means to deliver tasty, nutritious, safe, and convenient foods. The term Food Technology refers to the processes and systems used for food products. The technologies used after the point of harvesting of crops until the point of consumption belong to food technology. Some of the technologies used in food preservation are sterilization, pasteurization, packaging, chilling, freezing and dehydration. A specific technological application can be called as a technique. Some of them are analytical, separation, vacuum packaging and modified atmospheric techniques. Food technology is the study of how different foods can be used and made into food products. Before they are ready to be sold in the shops, food products go through a series of tests and studies to make sure that they are: - safe to eat; - good to eat; - easy to use; - well packaged; - a reasonable price. The food industry is very large and includes: - food producers (people who grow food); - food manufacturers (people who make food products); - food distributors (people who supply foods to shops, restaurants, schools, hospitals);
- food retailers (people who sell food); - food providers (people who cook and sell food in restaurants, can- teens, etc.) People have been growing, making and selling food to other people for hundreds of years, but it was during the 20th century that the food in- dustry became very large. Why did this happen? What were the conse- quences of the growth of the food industry? This happened because: 1. Governments encouraged farmers to grow more food. 2. Transport by land, sea and air became easier. 3. There was the growth of technology. The consequences are the following: 1. Many foods became cheaper and easier for people to buy. But: This resulted in environmental damage and big changes to the countryside (loss of hedgerows, ponds and woodland and other natural habitats for wildlife). 2. People travelled abroad and tried food from other countries. Food growth in one country could be sent to another country and arrive there in good condition. People used cars to buy their food from supermarkets. But: This resulted in air pollution and less exercise for people; opening foreign restaurants and selling foreign food in shops; the opportunity for people to eat some food (e.g. strawberries) all year round. 3. Food could be grown and harvested on large scale using machin- ery. New food products were invented, e.g. low-fat spreads, breakfast cere- als, instant puddings. New ways of preventing food from ‗going off ‘(pre- serving food) could be used, e.g. UHT milk, frozen food, vacuum packag- ing. But: This resulted in less need for working on farms; having more choices for people; less need for food shopping. The design processes The series of tests and studies that all new products go through be- fore they are ready to be sold is called the design process. All new prod- ucts, including cars, toys, kitchen equipment, medicines, and so on, go through a similar process. There are several stages in the design process for food products. A food manufacturer may repeat some stages when designing a new food product. Stage 1: Is a new product needed? This can be called ‗establishing a need ‘. There are several reasons why a manufacturer might think a new product is needed: - a customer might ask for a new product; - research may suggest a new product is needed;
- there may be a problem with an existing product, so it needs to be changed; - there may be changes in the types of food people want to eat, for example, they may want foods with less fat or sugar in them. To find out more about whether a new product is needed, the manu- facturer might carry out some market research. Market researchers will find out about the people who they think might buy the product and about simi- lar products that are available: About people: - why people buy certain food products; - how people live (their lifestyle); - how much money they spend on food; - how much cooking they do at home; - how often they eat out in restaurants; - how much notice they take of food issues, e.g. healthy eating ad- vice, where and how food is grown, food advertising, damage to the envi- ronment, animal welfare. About food products: - how they are made; - what they look, smell, taste and feel like; - what happens when they are frozen, cooked in a microwave oven, baked and so on; - how well their packaging works (it is easy to read and open, does it protect the food?) - are they suitable for vegetarians, people with allergies, babies, and so on? - do they meet people‘s needs, e.g. are they easy to prepare and use and healthy, are the portion sizes suitable? To find out such information, market researchers use a variety of methods, for example: - Interviews with people, in which they are asked questions from a survey or questionnaire. This might be done through the post, on the tele- phone, or face to face in the street. - Sampling similar food products to the one being designed, and giv- ing opinions about the products and marks for flavour, colour, shape, pack- aging, and so on. This is called sensory analysis. - Using the results of surveys published by other people and organi- zations, for example. The National Food Survey, MORI, Sodexo. Stage 2: What should the new product be like? The manufacturer has to write down a list called a specification. The first (initial) specification may be changed as the product goes through the design process. The final specification is the one that will be used to make the prod- uct that will be sold. The manufacturer includes: All the things they want included in the new product, for example: - its shape and size;
- its flavour and colour; - what it will be used for, for example, a snack, a main meal, a party food; - what ingredients it will contain; - what nutrients it will contain; - how it will be made; - how it will be packaged and stored; - who it will be advertised to, for example children, teenagers, single people (this is called the target group); - what it will cost to make and the price it will sell at; - what «image» it will have, for example every day, luxury, fashion- able, reliable, versatile (lots of uses). The manufacturer also has to specify all the things the law says they must, or cannot, include in the new product, for example: cannot - a certain amount or type of nutrients, for example sugar or fat; - a certain type of additive, for example a colour or preservative; - a particular method of preserving or packaging it; - a particular way of advertising it. must - certain information on the label. Stage 3: Developing the new product Sampling of the new product will be made and tested to see: - how it tastes, smells and feels; - what it looks like; - what happens when it is cooked; - how well it can be stored; - how best to package it. Some of the ingredients, or the amounts used, may need to be changed to improve the product, for example, its flavour, texture or image. A final specification will be produced once the results of the tests are known. Stage 4: Making the product The real product, complete with all the packaging, will now be made. This is often called the prototype. As the prototype is being made, infor- mation is collected to see whether there are any problems with how it is made, or the machinery, ingredients, or packaging used. One very important piece of information is how safe the food prod- uct is to eat. Food can be made unsafe to eat by tiny forms of life called mi- croorganisms (often called germs). These can get into the food if it is not care- fully made and will cause food poisoning. The food manufacturer must check all stages of production to make sure that microorganisms are not allowed to grow in the product while it is being made, or afterwards, while it is being stored.
Stage 5: Judging the product The product is tested and judged by trained people and ordinary members of the public. This process is sometimes called «evaluating». The manufacturer will use their judgments and the results of the tests to make a final decision about making and selling the new product in the shops. Stage 6: Putting the product on sale The food manufacturer might decide to advertise and sell the new food product in one particular area of the country, to see how well it sells. This is called a product trial. If it sells well, it will be sold elsewhere. If the product doesn ‘t sell well, it may be tried in a different area or taken out of production. Or it may need to have flavour or colour improved. Sometimes, food products that have been on sale for a long time are changed slightly and sold as a new, improved product to encourage people to buy more of them. An important point for the manufacturer to consider is to how to move products from one place to another (distribution). This includes: -collecting raw materials (ingredients and packaging materials) or having them regularly delivered by suppliers; - storing finished food products; - sending the finished products to shops, restaurants, warehouses and so on in good condition and on time. Exercise 1 Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations: Food technology, food industry, food producer, food manufacturer, food distributor, food retailer, food provider, design process, market research, food advertising, the National Food Survey, MORI, Sodexo, target group, food poisoning, product trial Exercise 2 Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations: To be used and made into smth, to go through a series of tests/studies, to pro- vide smbd with smth, to encourage smbd to do smth, in good condition, on a large scale, to prevent smth from smth, to improve the product, to need a new product, to be/look like, to develop a new product, to make a new product, to judge the product, to put the product on sale/ to sell the product, to check the stages of production, to advertise a new product, to move from one place to another. Exercise 3 Translate into Russian: food process engineering, horticulture, food science, composition of food, food preservation, undesirable effects, fising, spoilage, processing equipment, safe foods, agriculture, synthetic packing materials. Exercise 4 Translate into English: производство пищевых продуктов, пищевая промышленность, современное высокопроизводительное оборудование, синтетические упаковочные материалы, питательная ценность, химические изменения, виды микроорганизмов.
Exercise 5 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the predi- cates in the PASSIVE VOICE: 1. The quality of foodstuffs is constantly being improved. 2. Industrial processing of food can be followed by physical, chemi- cal and biological changes occurring in food materials. 3. Food technology is spoken of as scientific study of food and food preparation. 4. Food spoilage may be caused by the action of microorganisms. 5. Microbiology is now being looked upon as one of the most im- portant aspects of food science. 6. In the nearest future considerable growth of new synthetic packing materials production will be paid great attention to. Exercise 6 Find MODAL VERBS and their equivalents in the following sen- tences and translate them: 1. It is known that many different reactions may take place during food processing. 2. One should realize that many relationships in food 9 processing cannot be derived theoretically, but have to be found out experimentally. 3. Food technologist ought to make use of a combination of experi- mental data, mathematical calculations and experience. 4. One can expect that in the future the role of food science will be- come more important. 5. While preparing foods in industrial scale storage time and condi- tions must be taken into account. 6. Various microorganisms are able to cause undesirable changes in food products. TEXT 2 WHAT IS A FOOD TECHNOLOGIST? A food technologist is a science and engineering expert who re- searches and develops strategies to process, package, and safely distribute food products. Some professionals work in laboratories to investigate the physical and chemical properties of foods, while others are employed by processing plants to design new production techniques. In addition, a food technologist may apply his or her specialized knowledge to the develop- ment of better quality-control programs, shipping methods, and govern- ment standards. Ultimately, technologists ensure the foods citizens con- sume are safe and nutritious.
Many food technologists spend a lot of time working in the lab Food technology is often described as the practical application of food science, the study of plant and animal products consumed by humans. A food technologist uses the principle findings of scientific research to de- termine how to improve a product's nutritional value and extend its shelf life. Experts who work in research laboratories conduct experiments with different types of additives, preservatives, and packaging materials. They set recommendations for storage temperatures and preparation techniques to help consumers avoid eating bad food. Additionally, some researchers are involved in studies to create dishes and recipes that are generally healthier than existing options. A food technologist may advise ranchers on how to improve the quality of meat
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