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English in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics

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Нацелено на развитие, совершенствование и закрепление навыков различных видов чтения профессионально ориентированной литературы, а также на формирование у обучающихся определенного уровня коммуникативной компетенции, который позволит им пользоваться английским языком на практике. Оно построено на аутентичных материалах, основными источниками которых являются массовые открытые онланн-курсы. представленные ведущими зарубежными вузами. Адресовано студентам, магистрантам, аспирантам неязыковых вузов, обучающимся по направлениям подготовки «Зоотехния» и «Ветеринария», слушателям дополнительного профессионального образования, преподавателям, а также всем, кто изучает английский язык.
Бабушкина, Л. Е. English in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics : учебное пособие / Л. Е. Бабушкина, Г. В. Порческу. - Москва : Знание-М, 2022. - 108 с. - ISBN 978-5-00187-136-1. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1870549 (дата обращения: 04.12.2023). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
Фрагмент текстового слоя документа размещен для индексирующих роботов. Для полноценной работы с документом, пожалуйста, перейдите в ридер.

          МИНИСТЕРСТВО СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
РОССИЙСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ АГРАРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ — МСХА имени К. А. ТИМИРЯЗЕВА


Л. Е. БАБУШКИНА, Г. В. ПОРЧЕСКУ
   ^^^^^^^^^^Ж/
ENGLISH
IN VETERINARY MEDICINE AND ZOOTECHNICS

/ / / / / / /

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

Москва Знание-М 2022

           УДК 811
           ББК 81.43
                Е56

Рецензенты:
Н. И. Еремкина, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ФГБОУ ВО МИРЭА -Российский технологический университет, г. Москва;
О. Е. Тукаева, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков и методик обучения ФГБОУ ВО Мордовский государственный педагогический университет имени М. Е. Евсевьева


Е56

                  Бабушкина, Лариса Евгеньевна.
     English in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics : учебное пособие / Л. Е. Бабушкина, Г. В. Порческу ; Российский государственный аграрный университет — МСХА имени К. А. Тимирязева. — Москва : Знание-М, 2022. — 108 с.


                       ISBN 978-5-00187-136-1
                       Нацелено на развитие, совершенствование и закрепление навыков различных видов чтения профессионально ориентированной литературы, а также на формирование у обучающихся определенного уровня коммуникативной компетенции, который позволит им пользоваться английским языком на практике. Оно построено на аутентичных материалах, основными источниками которых являются массовые открытые онлайн-курсы, представленные ведущими зарубежными вузами.
                       Адресовано студентам, магистрантам, аспирантам неязыковых вузов, обучающимся по направлениям подготовки «Зоотехния» и «Ветеринария», слушателям дополнительного профессионального образования, преподавателям, а также всем, кто изучает английский язык.


                     Babushkina, Larisa Evgenievna.
             Е56          English in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics : Study Manual / L. E. Babushkina,
                     G. V. Porchesku ; Russian State Agrarian University — Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazev. — Moscow : Znanie-М, 2022. — 108 p.

                         ISBN 978-5-00187-136-1
                         The study manual is aimed at developing and consolidating language skills necessary for reading professional literature, as well as at developing communicative competence of students, which will allow them to use English in their professional field. It is based on authentic materials the main sources of which are massive open online courses from leading international universities.
                         The textbook is intended for students, undergraduates, and graduate students studying Zootechnics and Veterinary Medicine at non-linguistic universities, for students of further professional training, teachers, and everyone who is interested in studying English.


УДК 811
ББК 81.43

© Бабушкина Л. Е., Порческу Г. В., 2022
© Знание-М, 2022


ISBN 978-5-00187-136-1

                Оглавление





        ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ ......................................4

        UNIT 1. FROM THE HISTORY OF VETERINARY............6
          1.1. ORIGINS OF VETERINARY MEDICINE ............6
          1.2. LOOKING AT HISTORICAL INSTRUMENTS AND DOCUMENTS 15
          1.3. WILLIAM DICK AND VETERINARY MEDICINE IN EDINBURGH .25
          1.4. ANIMAL PLAGUES AND ADVANCING MEDICINE ....33
          1.5. TEACHING & LEARNING VETERINARY MEDICINE...43
          1.6. QUIZ......................................53

        UNIT 2. INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL SKILLS .........59
          2.1. SIGNALMENT................................59
          2.2. OBSERVATION SKILLS .......................66
          2.3. VITAL SIGNS...............................75
          2.4. GENERAL EXAMINATION SKILLS................84
          2.5. QUIZ .....................................91

        REFERENCES.......................................96

        KEYS ............................................97

3

Л. Е. Бабушкина, Г. В. Порческу





                ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ




            Настоящее учебное пособие адресовано студентам, магистрантам, аспирантам неязыковых вузов, обучающимся по направлениям подготовки «Зоотехния» и «Ветеринария», слушателям дополнительного профессионального образования, преподавателям, а также всем, кто изучает английский язык, и подготовлено в соответствии с современными целями и задачами обучения иностранному языку.
            Пособие нацелено на развитие, совершенствование и закрепление навыков различных видов чтения профессиональноориентированных текстов, а также на формирование у обучающихся определенного уровня коммуникативной компетенции, который позволит им пользоваться английским языком в профессиональной деятельности.
            Пособие построено на аутентичных материалах, основными источниками которых являются МООК (массовые открытые онлайн курсы) и др. Оно состоит из двух разделов, объединенных по тематическому принципу. Первая часть пособия «From the history of Veterinary» содержит материал, посвященный истории развития ветеринарии. Во второй части «Introduction to Clinical Skills» представлены статьи об особенностях профессии ветеринара в настоящее время. Каждый раздел включает в себя широкий спектр заданий и упражнений к текстам, направленных на пополнение словарного запаса студентов, развитие устной и письменной речи, аудирования и навыков чтения профессионально-ориентированных текстов.
            Работа с каждым текстом включает в себя несколько этапов:
            «Before reading» способствует повышению интереса и мотивации студентов к изучаемому материалу.
            «While reading» включает в себя текст и ряд упражнений, ориентированных на развитие навыков различных видов чтения, а также задания, позволяющие устранить трудности, которые могут возникнуть при чтении и переводе текстов.

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English in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics

              «After reading» содержит задания, направленные на обобщение прочитанного материала и формирование умения комментировать изученную информацию.
              «Points for reflection» способствует рефлексии прочитанного и формированию личностного отношения к предложенному материалу.
              Учебное пособие можно использовать для аудиторной работы со студентами с различным уровнем владения английским языком, как для групповой, так и для индивидуальной работы. Пособие также содержит ключи к наиболее сложным упражнениям, что позволяет использовать данные материалы для самостоятельной работы студентов.

5

Л. Е. Бабушкина, Г. В. Порческу





                UNIT 1. FROM THE HISTORY OF VETERINARY





       1.1. ORIGINS OF VETERINARY MEDICINE


              Before reading


                1.        Take a phone with a camera, scan the code, get information and listen to the video recording from COURSERA MOOC ‘‘EDIVET: Do you have what it takes to be a veterinarian?’’. Answer the following questions:
               1.       Do you have what it takes to be a veterinarian?
               2.       What do you know about the profession of a vet?


2. Complete the table about veterinary.

Facts I know Facts I’m not sure Facts I would like
                   about             to know      
                                                  

While reading

      3. Read and try to memorize the following words. Pay your attention to the pronunciation. Continue the list.

№ Word/word   Transcription      Translation           Example           
  collocation                                                            
1 veterinary  ['vetnn            ветеринар-  veterinary education in     
  education   ed3o'keif(9)n]     ное образо- Britain --- ветеринарное    
                                 вание       образование                 
                                             в Великобритании            
2 veterinary  ['vetnn 'meds(a)n] ветерина-   Veterinary medicine has     
  medicine                       рия         made many important con-    
                                             tributions to animal and hu                                             man health. --- Ветеринария 
                                             внесла важный вклад         
                                             в охрану здоровья           
                                             животных и человека.        

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English in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics

3  enlighten- [m'lait(9)nm(9) просвети-   science was invented in the 
   ment       nt]             тельство    enlightenment --- наука     
                                          была изобретена в эпоху     
                                          Просвещения                 
4  compara-   [kom'pxrotiv    сравнитель- the comparative anatomy     
   tive       o'nxtomi|       ная анато-  of brute animals ---        
   anatomy                    мия         сравнительная анатомия      
                                          хищников                    
5  anatomy    [g'nstgmi       кабинет     We have excellent IT        
   dissection di'sekjn ru:m]  анатоми-    facilities in the anatomy   
   room                       ческого     dissection room ---         
                              вскрытия    У нас есть отличное         
                                          ИТ-оборудование             
                                          в кабинете вскрытия         
6  pathology  [pg'Onlgdji]    патология   pathology investigation --- 
                                          исследование методами       
                                          патологии                   
7  treatment  ['tti:tm(9)nt]  лечение,    prolong the treatment of    
                              терапия,    the patient --- продлить    
                              уход        лечение пациента            
8  disease    [di'zi:z|       болезнь,    to suffer from a disease --                              заболева-   страдать болезнью, болеть   
                              ние, недуг                              
9  somatic    [sg'matik sel]  соматиче-   somatic cell                
   cell                       ская клетка hybridization ---           
                                          гибридизация                
                                          соматических клеток         
10 mammal     [ msm(o)l|      млекопита-  Human beings, dogs, and     
                              ющее        cats are all mammals. ---   
                                          Все люди, собаки и кошки    
                                          являются млекопитаю-        
                                          щими.                       
11 arthritis  [a:'0raitis]    артрит,     to be afflicted with        
                              воспаление  arthritis --- страдать      
                              сустава     артритом                    
12 ...                                                                

7

Л. Е. Бабушкина, Г. В. Порческу



            4.      Read the article and answer.


      What details if any can you learn about:
      — veterinarians’ tasks?
      — the development of veterinary medicine?
      — veterinary medicine in the 18th century?

ORIGINS OF VETERINARY MEDICINE


            Why did it begin then?


      Organized veterinary education is really quite a new thing, at least in historical terms, the arrangement of specialized schools and colleges that turn out qualified vets. That all really began in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, not really that long ago in historical terms. Why did it begin then? What happen in 18th century was a period of history was which historian refer to as the enlightenment.
      And the enlightenment was a new way of looking at the world which emphasized certain principles which hadn’t really been used before. Principles such as classification, order, and so on. And in fact, the word science, was in some senses, invented in the enlightenment. So during the 18th century, people began to look at people, and other animals in different ways. And this was the phase when veterinary medicine actually developed.
      That really was one of the key moments in history of human thought. Collecting and comparing things was a major enlightenment activity. This is the period when all the great natural history museums were established. And a subject that attracted in particular attention was both a zoological, and a medical one. And it laid the foundations for modern veterinary education. And that subject was comparative anatomy.
      Comparative anatomy was as exciting and controversial in the 18th and 19th century as genomics is to us today. It stretched the boundaries of what people understood, about what is was to be human. That of course, all culminated in the publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859. And Darwin himself had begun medical studies in Edinburgh in 1825.


8

English in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics

       The famous body snatching stories and films about Burke and Hare who dug up freshly buried corpses from the graveyards in Edinburgh. To supply anatomy dissection rooms was a notorious aspect of a development of the sciences of anatomy and pathology that took place in Edinburgh.
       That scandal led to the passing of the anatomy act in 1832. Which made it possible for doctors to legally and ethically obtain bodies for dissection, so that knowledge and treatments could be improved. It must have been an incredibly exciting time, as new insights into the body changed the way that people thought about disease.
       Fast forwarding for a moment into the 20th century. We find Edinburgh once more, at the center of a major scientific advance. Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic or body cell was born on the 5th of July 1996, at the Roslin Institute. Sadly, Dolly had to be put to sleep on 14th February 2003 because she was suffering from arthritis and progressive lung disease. But her mounted body is still to be found in the Royal Scottish Museum on Chambers Street in Edinburgh. She’s inarguably the most famous sheep in the world.


            Advances in veterinary medicine can aid humans


       So 18th century comparative anatomy and 21st century genomics are actually linked in quite interesting ways. They’re both concerned about humans and animals and the similarities and differences between them. And this is a discipline which is called comparative medicine or today sometimes known as one medicine. And it really breaks down barriers between species which in some senses are quite artificial. To vets who treat so many different animals, you can see that the human being is just another animal. So that advances in veterinary medicine can aid humans and vice versa.
       Back in the 18th century, then, we had comparative anatomy and the other side of the equation is agricultural improvement. And when both these things came together, we got the development of the European veterinary schools. And one of the great stimuli for that is a very important disease

9

Л. Е. Бабушкина, Г. В. Порческу

called rinderpest or cattle plague. And it was the need to understand more about this disease, the need to do something to bring it under control that really set things in motion which lead to the formation of veterinary schools.
      So here’s a few key dates on those early European veterinary schools. The first one was opened at Lyons in France in 1762. In Britain, the two oldest vet schools were opened in London in 1791, and then in Edinburgh in 1823. Edinburgh Veterinary School is still known as the Royal Dick’s School of Veterinarian Studies. Its famous founder is William Dick. But a formal veterinary training started only 223 years ago. What happened before? Who looked after animals in all the centuries before 1762?
      The answer to that is quite a wide variety of people. These include furriers, shepherds, grooms, stockmen and others who knew about animals and gained expertise in treating them. And some of these people were very highly skilled. And farriers in particular amassed a huge amount of knowledge and expertise on animal treatment, especially horses. And as you’ll hear in session three, the founder of the Edinburgh School was himself a farrier, as was his father.
      Throughout the whole of history, in fact, people have treated animals. Sometimes the same people treated both animals and humans. And who knows? Maybe we’ll return to that in the future. But the earliest records of veterinary treatment are found in ancient documents from Egypt and India. Fragments of the famous Kahun Papyrus describing veterinary treatment in Egypt were found in 1889 and are kept at University College, London.
      The first European text on veterinary medicine “Anatomy of the Horse” was printed in 1598. So what changed in the 18th century was that a new group of people emerged and began to specialize in animal treatment. They received a broadly similar education. They began to talk to each other and communicate using books and journals. And they began to collect together in what became a profession that was exclusively aimed at treating animals. The use of books and journals was crucial to the developing veterinary profession.
      In fact, delving into journals such as the Veterinary Records, which is still a leading publication today, gives us a glimpse of how the profession

10

English in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics

changed. It certainly doesn’t tell us everything about what life was like for a 19th century veterinary surgeon. No single historical source can do that. But, it gives some clues through case reports, correspondence pages, job adverts, and editorials about how the emerging profession began to organize itself. And define its role in society. But the new professional veterinarians didn’t have the field entirely to themselves. What had happened throughout history was that a wide variety of people had treated animals. They just didn’t simply give up because a new group had come along. What the new vets had to do was to demonstrate that their methods were actually better.
      That they were the more effective, and efficient animal healers. And that certainly didn’t happen overnight, in fact it took rather a long time. In Britain, it took us up to 1948 for the veterinary profession to obtain an exclusive monopoly on the treatment of animal disease. Up to that point, the middle of the 20th century, there was really quite a large variety of people treating animals. And they were legally entitled to do so. The only thing that they couldn’t do was to call themselves veterinary surgeons.
      So they might call themselves an animal doctor or canine physician or whatever. As long as they didn’t use the term veterinary surgeon, they could continue to treat animals. That all changed after 1948 when it then became illegal for non-veterinarians to treat animals. And if we look at other countries, you can see a similar kind of pattern emerging that the profession works to establish itself and then develops a professional monopoly. Just like all other professions in order to provide the services to animals.


            5.       Read the article again and answer the questions.


      1. What definition does the author give to “veterinary education”?
      2. What is meant by “enlightenment”?
      3.       Where did the earliest examples of comparative anatomy come from?
      4. What influenced the development of veterinary medicine?
      5.       Why did veterinary medicine emerge as a distinct profession in the 18th century?
      6. When was the first European text on veterinary medicine printed?

11

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