Английский язык для магистрантов и аспирантов. English for Graduate and Postgraduate Students
Пособие содержит научные, научно-популярные и общественно-политические тексты, а также комплексы упражнений и заданий для развития навыков устной и письменной речи на английском языке. Тематическое содержание соответствует программе-минимуму по иностранному языку для слушателей магистратуры и аспирантуры языковых и неязыковых специальностей вуза. Каждый раздел данного учебного пособия включает в себя упражнения по переводу, устной практике, усвоению активной лексики, тексты для изучающего и просмотрового чтения и последующего анализа. Для слушателей магистратуры и аспирантуры и преподавателей языковых и неязыковых специальностей вузов.
- ВО - Бакалавриат
- 44.03.01: Педагогическое образование
- 44.03.04: Профессиональное обучение (по отраслям)
- 45.03.01: Филология
- 45.03.02: Лингвистика
- ВО - Магистратура
- 44.04.01: Педагогическое образование
- 44.04.04: Профессиональное обучение (по отраслям)
- ВО - Специалитет
- 45.05.01: Перевод и переводоведение
Английский язык для магистрантов и аспирантов. English for Graduate and Postgraduate Students, 2019, 673950.02.99 Английский язык для магистрантов и аспирантов. English for Graduate and Postgraduate Students, 2015, 673950.01.99
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А.В. Вдовичев Н.Г. Оловникова АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ МАГИСТРАНТОВ И АСПИРАНТОВ ENGLISH FOR GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Учебно-методическое пособие 4-е издание, стереотипное Москва Издательство «ФЛИНТА» 2019
УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.432.1я73 В25 Ре це нзе нты: канд. филол. наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой иностранных языков факуль тета энергетического строительства БНТУ Н.П. Мартысюк; канд. филол. наук, доцент Е.А. Мисуно В25 Вдовичев А.В. Английский язык для магистрантов и аспирантов. English for Graduate and Postgraduate Students [ Э л е к т р о н н ы й р е с у р с ] : учеб.-метод. пособие / А.В. Вдовичев, Н.Г. Оловникова. — 4-е изд., стер. — М. : ФЛИНТА, 2019. — 246 с. ISBN 978-5-9765-2247-3 Пособие содержит научные, научно-популярные и общественнополитические тексты, а также комплексы упражнений и заданий для развития навыков устной и письменной речи на английском языке. Тематическое содержание соответствует программе-минимуму по иностранному языку для слушателей магистратуры и аспирантуры языковых и неязыковых специальностей вуза. Каждый раздел данного учебного пособия включает в себя упражнения по переводу, устной практике, усвоению активной лексики, тексты для изучающего и просмотрового чтения и последующего анализа. Для слушателей магистратуры и аспирантуры и преподавателей языковых и неязыковых специальностей вузов. УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.432.1я73 ISBN 978-5-9765-2247-3 © Вдовичев А.В., Оловникова Н.Г., 2017 © Издательство «ФЛИНТА», 2017
Contents Introduction .....................................................................................................4 UNIT 1. What is Science? .......................................................................6 UNIT 2. Evolution of Science ...............................................................33 UNIT 3. Knowledge Society .................................................................72 UNIT 4. Perspectives of Science Development ..................................112 UNIT 5. Science in Our Everyday Life ...............................................152 Supplementary Reading .............................................................................190 APPENDIX I. List of Sciences ..................................................................213 APPENDIX II. List of Abbreviations for College Degrees .......................241 APPENDIX III. List of Abbreviations for Titles .......................................243
Introduction Nowadays it is impossible to imagine our life without science and technology. Much attention is paid to scientifi c development at the level of higher education. The English language proved to be the main means of communication in the fi eld of research, development and science. That is why graduate and postgraduate students have to understand the bulk of information that is provided in English. This textbook can be regarded a guide to reading scientifi c and popular scientifi c texts in various fi elds, about the greatest inventions and researchers of the past and present as well as about perspectives of scientifi c development. The textbook consists of 5 units: 1. What Is Science? 2. Evolution of Science 3. Knowledge Society 4. Perspectives of Science Development 5. Science in Our Everyday Life Each unit contains 26 tasks (from A to Z) providing brainstorming activities, reading comprehension, vocabulary work, creative and interactive tasks, tips for graduates and postgraduates about presentations, thesis writing, communication skills needed in the fi eld of their research as well as tasks for development of skills of speaking and writing in English. The texts are selected in the way as to make all graduates and postgraduates be interested in the topics discussed, irrespective of their specialty and qualifi cation. All texts are accompanied by references of and links to the resources they are taken from. Both varieties of English are used: British and American. After the units there is a section with some additional texts that can be used during the classes of English. In Appendices one can fi nd some useful information about sciences that exist at present with the detailed defi nition, abbreviations of college degrees and academic and scientifi c titles (the US and European use).
The book will be quite useful in preparatory course for passing postgraduate exam in English. The authors of the textbook would like to express their sincere gratitude to all those who helped them fi nd interesting and useful information as well as to those who will use this book for their studies of English. We hope it will be very useful and we wish graduates and postgraduates all possible success in their researches, theses and scientifi c careers.
U N I T 1 What is Science? A. Read the following quotations about science and express your own opinion about science in general and about your fi eld of science. 1. The origin of all science is in the desire to know causes; and the origin of all false science and imposture is in the desire to accept false causes rather than none; or, which is the same thing, in the unwillingness to acknowledge our own ignorance. (William Hazlitt from The Atlas) 2. Science sometimes builds new bridges between universes of discourse and experience hitherto regarded as separate and heterogeneous. But science also breaks down old bridges and opens gulfs between universes that, traditionally, had been connected. (Aldous Huxley from Literature and Science) 3. Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths and encourage the arts and commerce. (John F. Kennedy from Inaugural Address) 3. When we say “science” we can either mean any manipulation of the inventive and organizing power of the human intellect: or we can mean such an extremely different thing as the religion of science, the vulgarized derivative from this pure activity manipulated by a sort of priestcraft into a great religious and political weapon. (Wyndham Lewis from The Art of Being Ruled) 4. Science does not aim, primarily, at high probabilities. It aims at a high informative content, well backed by experience. But a hypothesis may be very probable simply because it tells us nothing, or very little. (Karl R. Popper from The Logic of Scientifi c Discovery)
B. Write down 5—10 sentences expressing your ideas about science. C. Read the defi nitions of “science” and choose the one, which suits best to your ideas about science from exercise B. № Defi nition Source 1. 1) the systematic study of the nature and behaviour of the material and physical universe, based on observation, experiment, and measurement, and the formulation of laws to describe these facts in general terms; 2) the knowledge so obtained or the practice of obtaining it; 3) any particular branch of this knowledge the pure and applied sciences; 4) any body of knowledge organized in a systematic manner; 5) skill or technique; 6) (archaic) knowledge Collins English Dictionary, 8th Edition 2. Any system of knowledge that is concerned with the physical world and its phenomena and that entails unbiased observations and systematic experimentation. In general, a science involves a pursuit of knowledge covering general truths or the operations of fundamental laws. Britannica 3. Science is the study of the nature and behaviour of natural things and the knowledge that we obtain about them. Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary, 4th edition
Таблица (окончание) № Defi nition Source 4. A branch of study in which facts are observed and classifi ed, and, usually, quantitative laws are formulated and verifi ed; involves the application of mathematical reasoning and data analysis to natural phenomena. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientifi c and Technical Terms 5. 1) a branch of knowledge conducted on objective principles involving the systematized observation of and experiment with phenomena, esp. concerned with the material and functions of the physical universe; 2) (a) systematic and formulated knowledge, esp. of a specifi ed type or on a specifi ed subject (political science); (b) the pursuit or principles of this; 3) an organized body of knowledge on a subject (the science of philology); 4) skilful technique rather than strength or natural ability; 5) (archaic) knowledge of any kind. Oxford English Reference 6. Knowledge about the world, especially based on examination and testing, and on facts that can be proved Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 3rd edition D. Read the following text. What is Science? To understand what science is, just look around you. What do you see? Perhaps, your hand on the mouse, a computer screen,
papers, ballpoint pens, the family cat, the sun shining through the window ... Science is, in one sense, our knowledge of all that — all the stuff that is in the universe: from the tiniest subatomic particles in a single atom of the metal in your computer’s circuits, to the nuclear reactions that formed the immense ball of gas that is our sun, to the complex chemical interactions and electrical fl uctuations within your own body that allow you to read and understand these words. But just as importantly, science is also a reliable process by which we learn about all that stuff in the universe. However, science is different from many other ways of learning because of the way it is done. Science relies on testing ideas with evidence gathered from the natural world. This website will help you learn more about science as a process of learning about the natural world and access the parts of science that affect your life. Science helps satisfy the natural curiosity with which we are all born: why is the sky blue, how did the leopard get its spots, what is a solar eclipse? With science, we can answer such questions without resorting to magical explanations. And science can lead to technological advances, as well as helping us learn about enormously important and useful topics, such as our health, the environment, and natural hazards. Without science, the modern world would not be modern at all, and we still have much to learn. Millions of scientists all over the world are working to solve different parts of the puzzle of how the universe works, peering into its nooks and crannies, deploying their microscopes, telescopes, and other tools to unravel its secrets. Science is complex and multi-faceted, but the most important characteristics of science are straightforward: ● Science focuses exclusively on the natural world, and does not deal with supernatural explanations. ● Science is a way of learning about what is in the natural world, how the natural world works, and how the natural world got to be the way it is. It is not simply a collection of facts; rather it is a path to understanding.
● Scientists work in many different ways, but all science relies on testing ideas by fi guring out what expectations are generated by an idea and making observations to fi nd out whether those expectations hold true. ● Accepted scientifi c ideas are reliable because they have been subjected to rigorous testing, but as new evidence is acquired and new perspectives emerge these ideas can be revised. ● Science is a community endeavor. It relies on a system of checks and balances, which helps ensure that science moves in the direction of greater accuracy and understanding. This system is facilitated by diversity within the scientifi c community, which offers a broad range of perspectives on scientifi c ideas. To many, science may seem like an arcane, ivory-towered institution — but that impression is based on a misunderstanding of science. In fact: ● Science affects your life everyday in all sorts of different ways. ● Science can be fun and is accessible to everyone. ● You can apply an understanding of how science works to your everyday life. ● Anyone can become a scientist — of the amateur or professional variety. The word “science” probably brings to mind many different pictures: a fat textbook, white lab coats and microscopes, an astronomer peering through a telescope, a naturalist in the rainforest, Einstein’s equations scribbled on a chalkboard, the launch of the space shuttle, bubbling beakers ... All of those images refl ect some aspect of science, but none of them provides a full picture because science has so many facets: ● Science is both a body of knowledge and a process. In school, science may sometimes seem like a collection of isolated and static facts listed in a textbook, but that’s only a small part of the story. Just as importantly, science is also a process of discovery that allows us to link isolated facts into coherent and comprehensive understandings of the natural world.
● Science is exciting. Science is a way of discovering what’s in the universe and how those things work today, how they worked in the past, and how they are likely to work in the future. Scientists are motivated by the thrill of seeing or fi guring out something that no one has before. ● Science is useful. The knowledge generated by science is powerful and reliable. It can be used to develop new technologies, treat diseases, and deal with many other sorts of problems. ● Science is ongoing. Science is continually refi ning and expanding our knowledge of the universe, and as it does, it leads to new questions for future investigation. Science will never be “fi nished”. ● Science is a global human endeavor. People all over the world participate in the process of science. (from Understanding Science: An Overview) E. Check your reading comprehension. Choose the best answer (only one variant is possible). What do the underlined words from exercise D mean? 1) stuff (a) rubbish (b) substance (c) medicine (d) cloth 2) hazard (a) chance (b) accident (c) venture (d) danger 3) rigorous (a) strictly exact (b) severe (c) infl exible (d) harsh 4) accuracy (a) neatness (b) ability (c) precision (d) stability 5) rainforest (a) tropical wood (b) rainy zone (c) tropical climate (d) wet woodland 6) endeavor (a) struggle (b) essay (c) aim (d) attempt