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Вид издания: Учебное пособие
Данное пособие предназначено для студентов специальности «Робототехника и мехатроника» и содержит дидактические материалы для формирования коммуникативной компетенции. Пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторной, так и для внеаудиторной работы.
Березуцкая, Д. О. Robotics Engineering: Учебное пособие / Березуцкая Д.О., Юрова Ю.Ю. - Рн/Д:Южный федеральный университет, 2017. - 105 с.: ISBN 978-5-9275-2399-3. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/999623 (дата обращения: 13.06.2021). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
Текстовые фрагменты публикации
Д. О. Березуцкая Ю. Ю. Юрова ROBOTICS INGINEERING
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ» Инженерно-технологическая академия Д. О. Березуцкая Ю. Ю. Юрова ROBOTICS INGINEERING Учебное пособие Ростов-на-Дону – Таганрог Издательство Южного федерального университета 2017
УДК 811.11 (075.8) ББК 81.2Англ - 92 Б484 Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Южного федерального университета Рецензенты: доктор педагогических наук, профессор С.Р. Балуян; кандидат филологических наук, доцент О.Г. Мельник. Березуцкая, Д.О. Б484 Robotics Engineering : учебное пособие / Д.О. Березуцкая, Ю.Ю. Юрова ; Южный федеральный университет. – Ростов-на-Дону – Таганрог : Издательство Южного федерального университета, 2017. – 105 с. ISBN 978-5-9275-2399-3 Данное пособие предназначено для студентов специальности «Робототехника и мехатроника» и содержит дидактические материалы для формирования коммуникативной компетенции. Пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторной, так и для внеаудиторной работы. УДК 811.11 (075.8) ББК 81.2Англ - 92 ISBN 978-5-9275-2399-3 © Южный федеральный университет, 2017 © Березуцкая Д.О., Юрова Ю.Ю., 2017
Unit 1. Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Text A. What is a Robot? Vocabulary: application - применение, использование benefit - выгода; польза overload – перегрузка arguably - возможно, вероятно disruptive - разрушительный, опустошительный diffusing – рассеивающий welding - сварка cheetah – гепард virtual - в сущности являющийся artificial – искусственный circuitry – схема decent – подходящий ambiguous – двусмысленный, неопределённый, неясный to confuse - смешивать, путать to switch up – менять overhaul - ремонт; реконструкция spray nozzle - разбрызгивающее сопло, распылительное сопло precise - точный; определённый proximity sensor - датчик ближней локации; датчик приближения assigned task - поставленная задача For many people who think of robots and robotics, the first thing that would pop into their mind would be some sort of humanoid robot, such as Terminator, or androids in Star Wars. Maybe you think of the robot Sunny in iRobot, or something along those lines. Others may think of the show Robot Wars, where
robots face off in a ring with the goal of destroying each other. It is true that all of these are robots. But robots are much more than humanoids. You may not realize how many robots applications there truly are, and how many robots are being used to the benefit of society (so far). And if predictions are true, our robot overloads will all have us out of jobs in the next few decades, as they will be able to do anything better than humans – from flying aircraft, to making cars, to performing surgery. In fact, these applications all exist today. But in the present, robots are developing and arguably still a disruptive technology. In many applications, they are almost certainly better than us humans. Most applications are still be developed and perfected. For instance, robotic surgery is currently a very small market. Companies making surgical robots are only making them to perform routine and non-invasive surgeries. But how long it will be until they can perform open heart surgery, with the speed and precision, of, well, a robot? Even if the technology gets to that level, which it almost certainly would, would we be willing to put our lives in robotic hands? The 3Ds: Dangerous, Dirty, and Dull But although you may think of the more glamorous applications, many robots applications are based on three criteria: they do jobs that are dangerous, dirty, and dull. These are known as the 3Ds. Examples of these robots abound. Dangerous jobs: a bomb diffusing robot would be a prime example. Dirty: this may be something like robotic welding in an auto factory. Dull: a robot that moves boxes around in an Amazon warehouse. Many jobs fit into more than one category. You could argue that driving a vehicle is both dull and dangerous – a perfect task to hand off to robots (although this may fit better into the category of automation – discussed below). Most robots, with the exception of robotic toys, fit into one of the 3Ds. Maybe in the future when robots have perfected the 3D jobs, they will come for the rest of the jobs as well. The Definition of ‘Robot’ This is a prime time to define exactly what a robot is. Lets look at a couple of dictionary definitions, as that is usually a good place to start.
Merriam-Webster: a real or imaginary machine that is controlled by a computer and is often made to look like a human or animal a machine that can do the work of a person and that works automatically or is controlled by a computer The first definition is what the general public would think of when thinking of robots. This is a very narrow definition, and doesn’t really fit into the 3Ds. In most cases, why would you bother making the robot look like a human or animal when the job is dangerous, dirty, or dull? Unless the design of humans or animals is applicable to what you are doing. For instance, Boston Dynamics often mimics animals such as dogs and cheetahs in their designs, and some of these robots would be used for transportation in war-zones, which definitely meets the dangerous criteria. The second definition is much more along the lines of what a roboticist would think of when thinking of robots. Wikipedia goes into even more depth: A mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry. That is a decent definition, but it is a bit too specific, as it begins to discuss electro-mechanics, computer programming and electronic circuitry. It is getting too far ahead and instead missing some of the basics. Oxford Dictionaries says the following: A machine capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically, especially one programmable by a computer. That is a good explanation, as it mentions the ‘carrying out a complex series of actions.’ What exactly do they mean by that statement though? What counts as complex? What counts as carrying out? Another from the Robotic Institute of America (RIA): A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed functions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
This hits some key points. The only issue is with the use of the term manipulator, which may refer to a particular type of robot – the manipulator type, which is basically designed to resemble a human arm. They may have been mentioning manipulator in a broad sense, but it is ambiguous nonetheless. The best definition is probably either the RIA or Oxford definition, or some combination of the two. You can see the definition is really quite broad! And it is meant to be. Anything that you program (and can be reprogrammed for different tasks), is a machine, and that is designed to carry out a series of tasks can be considered a robot. A key part of the definition by RIA is that it is reprogrammable and multifunctional. This forms the basics for the distinction between robotics and automation, which are not the same and can be easily confused. Automation versus Robotics The main difference is this: an automated process usually cannot be changed or reprogrammed to do a different job with relative ease. If you wanted to switch up an automated process, you would likely need to do a major overhaul or build a separate machine altogether. For instance, if you have an automated station that spray paints car parts – say just a bunch of spray nozzles attached at various locations with everything automated and timed correctly – it would be difficult to modify this device to instead weld car parts. It isn’t set up for welding at all. Some components may be reusable, but you would essentially have to rebuild the entire automation device to weld parts together instead. But, if you had a robot manipulator – which resembles a human arm, but is usually faster, stronger, and more precise – you could have an attachment on it to spray paint car parts. You would program the correct movements and timing so that it properly painted all of the parts. If this robot is needed for welding instead, the company could switch out the end attachment to a welding device instead, and then reprogram in the correct movements and timing to correctly weld two parts together. The robot is reprogrammable and multifunctional. Just like a factory worker could be trained to both spray paint and weld, so could a robot manipulator. An automated process
could not. It is difficult or impossible to reprogram an automated process to perform a different task. Robots also often have sensory feedback, so that they can be trained to be more efficient and do their jobs better. In this sense, robots are often aware of their environment, whereas automated processes are often not. Robots can be reprogrammed to be made more efficient. Often in the case of robotic manipulators, sensors are used heavily. If something comes in the path of a robot, it will either sense the object with vision or proximity sensors, or stop moving once it impacts the object to prevent damage from occurring. Automated processes do not have this level of feedback. They will smash into whatever is in their path. More advanced robots may even be programmed to move around the obstacle in a safe way and continue on the assigned task. Another difference between automation and robotics. A robot would be able to use information from its sensors, collect information about the environment, and make intelligent decisions based on the surroundings. This would be a form of Artificial Intelligence. An automated process will not do this. This is much too complex for an automated process, which are usually made to perform simple movements over and over again and will never learn from their environment or become more intelligent or more efficient. Exercise 2. Answer the following questions. 1. What is a Robot? 2. What three criteria are robots applications based on? 3. How to define the term Robot? 4. What is a key part of the definition by RIA? 5. What is the main difference between automated processes and robots? 6. What else is special about robots? Exercise 3. Mark the following sentences true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. Robots are only humanoids.
2. In the present, robots are fully developed and are absolutely safe technology. 3. Many robots applications are based on three criteria: they do jobs that are safe, creative, and interesting. 4. Most robots, with the exception of robotic toys, fit into one of the 3Ds. 5. The best definition is probably either the Wikipedia or Oxford definition, or some combination of the two. 6. A key part of the definition by RIA is that any robot is reprogrammable and multifunctional. 7. Robotics and automation are the same notions. 8. It is easy to reprogram an automated process to perform a different task. 9. Robots can be reprogrammed to be made more efficient. 10. Automated processes have a very high level of sensory feedback. Exercise 4. Match each sentence with its ending. 1. If predictions are true, robots will all have us out of jobs in the next few decades, a. whereas automated processes are often not. 2. Companies making surgical robots are only making them b. which are not the same and can be easily confused. 3. Dangerous jobs: c. in a safe way and continue on the assigned task. 4. Maybe in the future when robots have perfected the 3D jobs, d. as they will be able to do anything better than humans. 5. A machine capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically, e. and weld, so could a robot manipulator. 6. This forms the basics for the distinction between robotics and f. they will come for the rest of the jobs as well.
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