A Guide To Better English Accent
Учебное пособие предлагает студентам теоретический и практический учебный материал по практической фонетике английского языка. Пособие содержит комплекс заданий и упражнений для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы.
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ» Л. А. Вертоградова Л. С. Абросимова A GUIDE TO BETTER ENGLISH ACCENT УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ по практической фонетике английского языка Rostov-on-Don 2016
УДК 811 ББК 81.2 Англ.-1 В39 Авторы: Вертоградова Л.А., кандидат филологических наук, доцент; Абросимова Л.С., кандидат филологических наук, доцент Ответственный редактор: Абросимова Л.С., кандидат филологических наук, доцент Рецензенты: Склярова Н.Г., доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры теории и практики английского языка ЮФУ; Муругова Е.В., доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры мировых языков и культур ДГТУ В39A Guide to Better English Accent: учебное пособие по практической фонетике английского языка для студентов, обучающихся по направлению «ЛИНГВИСТИКА» ; Южный федеральный университет. – Ростов-на-Дону : Издательство Южного федерального университета, 2016. – 137 с. ISBN 978-5-9275-1970-5 Учебное пособие предлагает студентам теоретический и практический учебный материал по практической фонетике английского языка. Пособие содержит комплекс заданий и упражнений для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы. Публикуется в авторской редакции. ISBN 978-5-9275-1970-5 УДК 811 ББК 81.2 Англ.-1 © Вертоградова Л.А., Абросимова Л.С., 2016 © Южный федеральный университет, 2016
S E C T I O N I S P E E C H S O U N D S Symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet Vowels short: I in, lip, bit e chest, rest, kettle x bad. mad, marry A bus, trust, luck P not, wash, rod V good, put, look q above, under, teacher long: J key, leave, seat R start, car, dark H blue, new, cute E: turn, girl, bird L nor, core, lord diphthongs: eI cake, day, late Vq cure, fewer, newer OI noise, point, boy Fq care. there, wear aI like, type, night Iq here, near, career qV no, go, low aV loud, cow, now Consonants p pencil, clap, b body, job t top, bit d desk, bed k colour, pick g go, big f find, off v village, survive T thick, bath D these, within s sea, terrace z zero, chase S shop, nation Z pleasure, television h head, whole m money, climb n nod, know N bank, sing C chicken, pitch G jungle, age l line, fall r right, wrong j yes, year w when, queen 3
ARTICULATORY PECULIARITIES OF ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEMES There are certain peculiarities in the system of English Vowel Phonemes to be observed by a student of English: 1. There are 20 vowel phonemes in English and 6 in Russian. 2. The English vowel phonemes include 12 monophthongs and 8 diphthongs, whereas there are no diphthongs in Russian. 3. According to length the English vowel phonemes are long and short, and this distinction lies on the phonological level while in Russian it is purely phonetic: e.g. sheep - ship -шип. 4. All the English long vowels are tense and short ones are lax. Russian vowel phonemes are not differentiated according to their tenseness, but one and the same vowel is more tense in a stressed syllable than in an unstressed one. 5. There are rounded vowel phonemes in both languages but they differ in the degree of lip rounding. The Russian vowel phonemes are pronounced with considerable lip-protrusion and rounding while in English [V ], [ P ], [ u: ], [ L ] are pronounced with lips slightly protruded. 6. The English vowels differ from the Russian vowels also in the character of their end. All the Russian vowels are free, whereas some of the English vowels are free and others are checked. 7. According to the horizontal movement of the tongue English vowels are divided into 5 groups: front, front-retracted, central, back and back-advanced. The Russian language has neither frontretracted [ I ], nor back-advanced [ R ], [ V ]. 8. According to the vertical movement of the tongue there are 6 positions in English, whereas in Russian there are only three: in English there are two variants /narrow and broad/ of each of the three main positions of the tongue (high, mid, low). 4
QUESTIONS AND TASKS Questions: 1. What is the difference between phonemes and letters? 2. What linguistic science studies phonemes? 3. How many phonemes are there in the English phonetic system? 4. How many letters does the English alphabet include? 5. Compare the number of vowel phonemes in English and in Russian. Write the English vowel phonemes in transcription. 6. What groups of vowel phonemes are distinguished according to length in English? Does this principle exist in the Russian vowel system? 7. How are vowel phonemes classified according to their tenseness? 8. What is understood by rounded vowels? Compare the articulation of rounded vowels in English and Russian. 9. Are English vowels classified according to the character of their end? What about Russian vowels? 10. What groups of vowels are distinguished according to the horizontal movement of the tongue in English? And in Russian? 11. What principle of classification is used in distinguishing high, mid and low vowels? Tasks: 1. Transcribe the following sentences and underline long vowels with one line, short vowels with two lines and rounded vowels with a wavy line. Do you find it a demanding job? What are you working on at the moment? The squash courts consist of a square room in which two players have to strike a small rubber ball. 2. Transcribe the following lines. Underline monophthongs with one line and diphthongs with two lines. It is the hour when from the boughs The nightingale’s high note is heard. (George G. Byron) I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high over vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host of golden daffodils. (W. Wordsworth) 5
CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEMES 1.There are 20 vowel phonemes in English. 2. English vowels are divided into two groups: monophthongs and diphthongs. A monophthong is a pure unchanging sound. Organs of speech don’t change their position. There are 12 monophthongs in English. A diphthong is a sound consisting of two elements, pronounced so as to form a single syllable. Diphthongs consist of the nucleus and the glide. There are 8 diphthongs in English: [ eI ], [ aI ], [ OI ], [ qV ], [ aV ], [ Iq ], [ Fq ], [ Vq ] 3. English monophthongs may be classified according to the following principles: - according to the tongue position; - according to the lip position; - according to the length of the vowel; - according to the degree of tenseness; - according to the character of their end. 4. According to the horizontal movement of the tongue English vowels are divided into: - front vowels : [ i: ], [ e ], [ x ]; - front-retracted vowel: [ I ]; - central (mixed) vowels : [ q], [ E: ], [ A ]; - back vowels: [ P ], [ L ],[ H ]; - back-advanced vowels: [ R ], [ V ]. 5. According to the vertical movement of the tongue English vowels are divided into: - high (narrow) vowels : [ i: ], [ u: ]; (broad) [ I ], [ V ]; - mid vowels : [ e ], [ E: ], [ q ], [ L ]; - low vowels : [ A ], [ x ], [ P ], [ R]. 6. According to their length vowels may be long and short: - long (tense) vowels: [ R ], [ J ], [ L ], [ H ], [ E: ]; - short (lax) vowels: [ I ], [ P ], [ A ], [ e ], [ q ], [ V ], [x ]. Short vowels are checked under stress. 6
7. According to the position of the lips vowels may be: - rounded (more or less): [L ], [ P ], [H ], [ V ]; - unrounded (the lips are spread or neutral): [ R ], [ J ], [ E: ]; [ I ], [ A ], [ e ], [ q ], [x ]. 8. According to the degree of tenseness vowels are divided into tense and lax. All the English long vowels are tense, all the English short vowels are lax. 9. Acording to the character of their end the English vowels may be checked and free.Checked vowels are those which are pronounced without any lessening the force of utterance towards their end. They have a strong end. They end abruptly and are interrupted by a consonant immediately following. e.g. city Stressed short monophthongs are always checked as well as long monophthongs and diphthongs before a voiceless consonant in stressed position. The rest vowels are free. QUESTIONS AND TASKS Questions: 1. Give the definition of a monophthong. Transcribe all English monophthongs and pronounce them. 2. Give the definition of a diphthong. What elements does a diphthong consist of? Write and pronounce all English diphthongs. 3. According to what principles may English monophthongs be classified? 4. Classify English vowels according to the tongue position. Give examples. 5. Classify English vowels according to the lip position. Give examples. 6. Classify English vowels according to their length. Give examples. Tasks: 1. Characterise the following monophthongs: [ J ], [ I ], [e ], [x ], [R]; [ A ], [ L ], [ P ], [H ], [V ], [E: ], [q ]. 2. Explain the difference in the articulation of the following sounds: [ J ] - [ I ]; [ e ] - [ x ]; [x ] - [ A ]; [ R ] - [ A ]. Give examples of words in which these sounds are opposed. 7
3. Classify the vowel phonemes in this rhyme according to the horizontal and vertical position of the tongue. A diller, a dollar, a ten o’clock scholar. What makes you come so soon? You used to come at ten o’clock But now you come at noon. 4. Transcribe the following words and read them. Observe the difference in pronunciation of vowels. Explain the reading rules: a) sleep - slip [ ] seek - sick [ ] feel - fill [ ] been - bin [ ] Jean - Jim [ ] eat - it [ ] meal - mill [ ] steal - still [ ] sleep - slip [ ] sleet - slit [ ] b) said – sad [ ] left – lad [ ] bed – lad [ ] merry - marry [ ] men - man [ ] pen - pants [ ] plan - then [ ] shall - Shelly [ ] any - anxious [ ] plenty - sandy [ ] c) last – lack [ ] basket – harbour [ ] march – monkey [ ] hard – hundred [ ] dark – luck [ ] started – studied [ ] rather – sunny [ ] mask – must [ ] ask – must [ ] last – dull [ ] d) more – mercy [ ] church – chalk [ ] warm – worm [ ] saw – sir [ ] lawn – learn [ ] call – curtain [ ] worth – warn [ ] taught – person [ ] fought – third [ ] daughter – dirty [ ] e) hare – dear [ ] fear – fare [ ] spear – spare [ ] here – there [ ] fear – where [ ] hair – near [ ] f) boat – loud [ ] down – goal [ ] road – gown [ ] bow – soap [ ] bought – boat [ ] thought – goat [ ] 8
POSITIONAL AND COMBINATIVE CHANGES OF VOWEL PHONEMES IN THE FLOW OF SPEECH The correct length of a vowel phoneme is of great practical importance for the rhythmical structure. The relative positional length should be strictly observed because otherwise it may lead to misunderstanding. 1. Positional length of vowels. No matter whether a vowel is originally long or short, its length may depend on the following sound: • it is longer in a stressed word-final position, • shorter before a voiced consonant, • still shorter before a voiceless consonant: E.g. sea - seed - seat 2. A vowel is usually longer: a) in a monosyllabic word than in a polysyllabic one: E.g. work – worker b) in a stressed position than in an unstressed one: E.g. art - articulation c) when the stressed syllable is pronounced with the rising or falling-rising tone than with the falling tone: E.g. Read. "Read. Read. 3. A combination of two vowel phonemes within a word or at the junction of words which are not separated by a pause must be pronounced without interruption or glottal stop before the second vowel: E.g. radiator, the apple. The same is true about a combination of a consonant and a vowel at the junction of words: e.g. Take a cup of coffee. Take it away. This rule is called linking of words. 4. Vowels of constantly full formation are unstressed vowels which are used in all styles of pronunciation and are rather close in timbre to the same vowels under stress. They are used in many words of foreign origin (Latin or Greek): e. g. extract [ 'ekstrækt], programme [ 'prougræm]. They may also occur in words of English origin: e.g. text-book ['tekstbVk ], exercise [ 'eksəsaIz]. The use of a semi-weak or a neutral vowel would be incorrect. 9
QUESTIONS AND TASKS Questions: 1. Why is the correct length of an English vowel phoneme of great practical importance? Prove your reasons by examples. 2. What does the positional length of a vowel depend on? Is there any difference in the positional length of long and short vowels? 3. What is understood by the rule of word linking? 4. What phonemes are called vowels of constantly full formation? How is it possible to identify them? Tasks: 1. Arrange the following words into three columns according to the positional length of vowels: bore, sea, meet, did, kick, tin, lean, board, bought, laid, seed, feel, late 2. Read the words. Observe the difference in the positional length of vowels: bee -been - beet lay - laid - late dee – deen - deep may – maid - mate knee – need - neat say – save - safe see – seed - seat sigh - side – sight tie – tide – tight core – cord – caught her – heard – hurt were- girl - purse four – form – fork bore – board – bought saw – sword - sought I - mine - might far – barn – part why – wide – white 3. Compare the length of stressed vowels in the following pairs of words. Explain the difference. work-worker; differ-difference; interest-interesting; read-readable; position-positional. 4. Compare the length of underlined vowels in the following words. Explain the difference. demonstrate-demonstration; palatalize-palatalazation; art - articulation 5. Practice saying the phrases as one word. What rule is used? Hurry up. How are you? How’s it going? Go away. Say it again. Put it away. Tidy up. Sell everything. Tell Annie. We’ll all agree. Far away. 6.Read the following words and word-combinations observing the rule of linking of words. Mark the links. an unexpected blow sunny intervals Put it away Wrap it in a scarf read a book Drink a cup of tea Don’t think about it Rub it She came into a small street. Nearer and nearer She was walking over a wide bridge. 10