Verbal Relations in English Grammar
Пособие детально описывает наиболее сложные вопросы грамматики английского языка: глагол и его функционирование в предложении. Пособие состоит из двух частей — «Отношения в предложении» и «Личные формы глагола». Книга предназначена для широкого круга читателей: для студентов и преподавателей языковых учебных заведений, а также для всех, кто изучает английский язык самостоятельно.
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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Уральский федеральный университет имени первого Президента России Б. Н. Ельцина Н.В. Обвинцева VERBAL RELATIONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR Учебное пособие Рекомендовано методическим советом УрФУ для студентов языковых специальностей Москва Издательство «ФЛИНТА» Издательство Уральского университета 2017 2-е издание, стереотипное
УДК 81′367/625:811/111(075.8) ББК 81.432.1-213я73 О-13 Р е ц е н з е н т ы : Т.Г. Точилкина, канд. филол. наук, доц. Челябинского государственного педагогического университета; Г.А. Наседкина, канд. педаг. наук, доц. Челябинской государственной академии культуры и искусств Научный редактор — канд. филол. наук, доц. А. С. Поршнева Обвинцева, Н.В. Verbal Relations in English Grammar [Электронный ресурс]: учебное пособие / Н. В. Обвинцева. — 2-е изд., стер. — М. : ФЛИНТА : Изд-во Урал. ун-та, 2017. — 84 с. ISBN 978-5-9765-3193-2 (ФЛИНТА) ISBN 978-5-7996-1704-2 (Изд-во Урал. ун-та) Пособие детально описывает наиболее сложные вопросы грамма тики английского языка: глагол и его функционирование в предложении. Пособие состоит из двух частей — «Отношения в предложении» и «Личные формы глагола». Книга предназначена для широкого круга читателей: для студентов и преподавателей языковых учебных заведений, а также для всех, кто изучает английский язык самостоятельно. Печатается по рекомендации кафедры иностранных языков УрФУ УДК 81′367/625:811/111(075.8) ББК 81.432.1-213я73 © Уральский федеральный университет, 2016 О-13 ISBN 978-5-9765-3193-2 (ФЛИНТА) ISBN 978-5-7996-1704-2 (Изд-во Урал. ун-та)
INTRODUCTION Effective English language communication usually requires that each sentence contains a subject and a predicate. The subject is sometimes defined as a person, a place, or a thing. The predicate conveys an understanding of the action expressed, or the state of the subject. Subject and predicate are the functions of the words or phrases, they are usually expressed by the parts of speech or phrases which they form. Function is a relational concept. For example: A lot of people have visited this event. When we say that a lot of people is subject we are describing the relation between it and have visited, or between it and the whole clause. It is the subject of the clause, not simply a subject. It is expressed by the Noun phrase. And the predicate in this sentence is expressed by the verb.  The traditional term ‘parts of speech’ applies to what we call categories of words and lexemes. We recognise nine categories  (Table 1). Table 1 NOUN The dog barked That is Sue We saw you VERB The dog barked I have a headache It is impossible ADJECTIVE He’s very old It looks empty I’ve got a new car DETERMINATIVE The dog barked I need some nails All things change
| VERBAL RELATIONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR | ADVERB She spoke clearly He ‘s very old I almost died PREPOSITION It’s in the car I gave it to Sam Here ‘s a list of them COORDINATOR I got up and left Ed or Jo took it It’s cheap but strong SUBORDINATOR It’s odd that they were late I wonder whether it ‘s still available They don ‘t know if you ‘re serious INTERJECTION oh, hello, wow, ouch The two largest and most important categories are the noun and the verb, the two that we have already introduced. The most basic kind of clause contains at least one noun and one verb. The first six categories in list can function as the head of corresponding phrases (noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective phrase, etc.). The other three can’t . The verb plays an essential role in English language. Its form and place bear the main information in the sentence. Verbs convey a sense of action or they convey the state of an entity. Verbs may also convey a sense of time. A verb is a kind of word (part of speech) that tells about an action or a state. It is the main part of a sentence: every sentence has a verb. In English, verbs are the only kind of word that changes to show past or present tense . English has two main kinds of verbs: normal verbs (called lexical verbs) and auxiliary verbs. The difference between them is mainly in where they can go in a sentence. Some verbs are in both groups, but there are very few auxiliary verbs in English. There are also two kinds of auxiliary verbs: modal verbs and non-modal verbs. In this textbook we consider lexical verbs in all their categories and observe the place of them in the sentence.
UNIT I RELATIONS IN THE SENTENCE WORD ORDER Sentence is a linguistic unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked. A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion . Sentence — conceived, explicitly or implicitly, as the largest unit of grammar, or the largest unit over which a rule of grammar can operate (P. H. Matthews). Word order — used widely of the order of elements within the sentence, whether words or, more commonly, phrases. E. g. the ‘basic word order’ in English is ‘SVO’: i. e. a subject phrase (S), whether one word or many, precedes the verb (V), and an object phrase (O), again whether one word or many, follows it. Due to the absence of case distinctions word order is practically the only means of distinguishing between the subject and the direct object. The word order in English is direct. The basic pattern of a simple sentence in English is one subject-predicate unit, that is, it has two main (principal) positions: those of the subject and of the predicate. It is the pattern of a two-member sentence. The verb in the predicate position may be intransitive, transitive, ditransitive or a link verb. The structure of the common sentence comprises the members in the following order :
| VERBAL RELATIONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR | 1. The subject; 2. The predicate; 3. Objects; 4. The complement (predicative); 5. Modifiers. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE AGREEMENT In the English language the predicate agrees with the subject in person and number. Agreement implies that the use of one form necessitates the use of the other (e. g. a singular subject requires a predicate in the singular, plural subjects reqiure a predicate in plural). This rule remains true for all link verbs irrespective of the number of the predicative noun, as in: Our only guide was the Polar star. Our only guide was the stars. In Modern English, with its few inflexions, this agreement is restricted to the present tense apart from the verb to be. The verb to be agrees with the subject both in present and in the past . The rules of agreement of the predicate with the subject expressed by: 1 . H o m o g e n e o u s m e m b e r s – If there are two or more homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunction and or asyndetically the predicate is in the plural. Her father and mother were obviously haunted and harassed (Galsworthy) . The top of a low black cabinet, the old oak table, the chairs in tawny leather, were littered with the children’s toys, books, and garden garments (Eliot) . NB! If two or more homogeneous subjects are expressed by the infinitives the predicate is used in singular. To know everything is to know nothing. To be loved and to be wanted is always good.
| UNIT I. RELATIONS IN THE SENTENCE | 7 – In the sentences where the predicate precedes a number of subjects (commonly used in sentences starting with here or there), the predicate agrees with the subject that stands first. There is a scope for innovation and change both in the composition and procedures of appellate courts (Bell). – When two homogeneous subjects are connected by the conjunctions: not only… but (also), neither… nor, either… or, or, nor the predicate agrees with the subject next to it. Either my sister or my parents are at home. Either my parents or my sister is at home. Neither you nor I am right. Neither I nor you are right. Not only my parents but also my brother knows about it. Not only my brother but also my parents know about it. Is Tom or Mary eager to meet you at the station? – When two subjects are connected by the conjunction as well as, rather than, as much as, more than, the predicate agrees with the first one. My parents as well as my sister are teachers. My sister as well as my parents is a teacher. The manager as well as/rather than/more than/as much as the members of the board is responsible for the present situation. – If the subject is modified by two or more attributes, connected by the conjunction and, the predicate is used in plural when two or more things, ideas, people are meant. In this case with uncountable nouns and plural nouns the article is put once, before the first attribute, with countable singular nouns the article is put before each attribute. A black and a white kitten were playing on the hearth rug. (A black kitten was playing and a white kitten was playing).
| VERBAL RELATIONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR | The yellow and the red car were badly damaged. In modern hotels hot and cold water are supplied in every room. American and Dutch beer are both much lighter than British. Good and bad tastes are shown by examples. The Black and Mediterranean Seas never freeze. If the article is repeated, the reference is to two persons or objects, a plural verb-predicate is used. The bread and the butter are on the table. (Two separate object are meant). The painter and the decorator are here. (Two persons are meant). NB! If one thing, idea or person is meant, the predicate is in singular. A tall and beautiful girl was waiting in the office. A black and white kitten was playing on the hearth rug. 2 . P r o n o u n – By a defining, indefinite or negative pronoun (each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, somebody, someone, something, nobody, no one, nothing, neither), the predicate is in the singular. Somebody is asking for you. Nobody has come except me. Everyone of us is present. Neither of the students has made a mistake. Each has answered well. NB! None has a plural verb-predicate (very seldom one can meet singular usage). None were here. None of us understand it. None of them have come. – By an interrogative pronoun who, what, the predicate is in singular if the question is not definitely referred to more than one person. Who are standing at the door? I can hear a number of voices. Who is there?
| UNIT I. RELATIONS IN THE SENTENCE | 9 – By the relative pronoun who, what, that, the predicate agrees with its antecedent. It is you who are right. It is I who am wrong. But: It’s me who is wrong. – By the emphatic it the predicate is in the singular no matter what follows. It is what the idea looks like. Foreigners say that it is only English girls who can be trusted to travel alone (Bronte). – By the universal pronoun both and the phrase both… and, the predicate is in the plural. Both the bread and the butter are fresh. Both the teacher and the students have come. Which of the letters are yours? Both are mine. – By the All in the sense of «всё» has a singular verb, all in the sense of «все» takes a plural verb. All is well that ends well. All that glitters is not gold. All were in favour of the plan. 3 . P l u r a l n o u n s – By a plural noun which is the title of the book, the name of one thing (a newspaper, magazine, company, etc.), or a quotation, the predicate is in the singular. “Fathers and Sons” is the most popular of Turgenev’s novels. NB! The titles of some works which are collections of stories, etc., may have either a singular or a plural verb. The “Canterbury Tales” consist of about seventeen thousand lines of verse. Turgenev’s “Hunter’s Tales” was/were published in 1852.
| VERBAL RELATIONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR | – By a noun in the plural denoting time, measure, or distance the predicate is in the singular when the noun represents the amount or mass as a whole. 4 . C o l l e c t i v e n o u n s – By a collective noun denoting a group or collection of similar individuals taken as a whole (humanity, mankind, etc.) the predicate is in the singular. – By a noun of multitude (i. e. a collective noun denoting the individuals of the group taken separately e. g. people, infantry, cavalry, gentry, clergy, police, cattle, poultry, jury, etc.) the predicate is in the plural . – By a collective noun such as family, committee, crew, board, chorus, government, party, team, company, band, crowd, clergy, cattle, gang, group, guard, gentry, infantry, jury, the predicate is either in the singular or in the plural, depends on what is uppermost in the mind, the idea of oneness or plurality. A new government has been formed. The government have asked me to go, so I am leaving now. It was now nearly eleven о’clock and the congregation were arriving… The congregation was small. How are your family? Our family has always been a very happy one. The commanding officer does not know where his cavalry is and his cavalry are not completely sure of their situation. The crowd was enormous. The crowd were silent. The crowd were watching the scene spell-bound. The cattle is in the mountains. The cattle have stopped grazing. They know before you hear any sound that planes are approaching. The jury decides whether the accused is guilty or not. While the jury were out, some of the public went out for a breath of fresh air. The crew on the shipwas excellent. The crewhave taken their posts.