Тексты для дополнительного чтения на английском языке для студентов направления «Экономика»
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Тексты для дополнительного чтения на английском языке для студентов направления «Экономика»
Вид издания: Учебно-методическая литература
Данное пособие состоит из 17 разделов (Unit), включающих в себя тексты и упражнения к ним: упражнения составлены на основе терминологической лексики. Пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по направлению «Экономика».
Черкасова, Е. Э. Тексты для дополнительного чтения на английском языке для студентов направления «Экономика»: методическое пособие / Е. Э. Черкасова. - Москва : Прометей, 2014. - 59 с. - ISBN 978-5-7042-2533-1. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/558125 (дата обращения: 03.08.2021). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
Текстовые фрагменты публикации
Министерство образования Московской области ГБОУ ВО МО «Международный университет природы, общества и человека «Дубна» Филиал «Протвино» Кафедра гуманитарных и социальных наук Е. Э. Черкасова ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ для студентов направления «ЭКОНОМИКА» МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ Рекомендовано учебно-методическим советом филиала «Протвино» университета «Дубна» в качестве методического пособия для студентов направления «Экономика» Москва, 2014
ББК 81.2 я73 Ч 48 Р е ц е н з е н т ы: старший преподаватель английского языка кафедры гуманитарных и социальных наук филиала «Протвино» университета «Дубна» М. Н. Чермных кандидат философских наук, доцент кафедры экономики филиала «Протвино» университета «Дубна» С. К. Становкин Черкасова, Е. Э. Ч 48 Тексты для дополнительного чтения на английском языке для студентов направления «Экономика»: методическое пособие. — М.: Прометей, 2014. — 59(1) с. ISBN 978-5-7042-2533-1 Данное пособие состоит из 17 разделов (Unit), включающих в себя тексты и упражнения к ним: упражнения составлены на основе терминологической лексики. Пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по направлению «Экономика». ББК 81.2 я73 ISBN 978-5-7042-2533-1 © Черкасова Е.Э., 2014 © Издательство «Прометей», 2014.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Unit 1. Advertising. History of Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Unit 2. Types of Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Unit 3. Consumer advertising. Industrial advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Unit 4. Trade advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Unit 5. Retail advertising. Financial advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Unit 6. Advertising Information. History of Online Advertising . . . . . . . . .21 Unit 7. Types of Internet Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Unit 8. Online advertisement as Digital Promotions for Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Unit 9. Direct Mail and Direct Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Unit 10. Hyper-commercialism and the commercial tidal wave . . . . . . . . .34 Unit 11. Advertising and constitutional rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Unit 12. The price of attention and hidden costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Unit 13. The commercialization of culture and sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Unit 14. Occupation and commercialization of public space . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Unit 15. Socio-cultural aspects: sexism, discrimination and stereotyping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Unit 16. Children and adolescents as target groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Unit 17. Opposition and campaigns against advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Дополнительные задания . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Библиографический список . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
UNIT 1 Advertising. History of Advertising Task 1. Use the following words and expressions in your own sentences: Sophisticated, tools, interruptive, ad frequency, the after-market, eventual sale, packaging, pricing, distribution, inn sing 2. Translate into English: Понятие и роль рекламы на товарном рынке. Слово «реклама» — латинского происхождения и означает мероприятия, имеющие цель создать широкую известность чему-либо, распространение сведений о чем-либо. Реклама, с одной стороны, доводит до потребителей сведения, необходимые для покупки товара. С другой стороны, она оказывает эмоционально- психическое воздействие на человека. 3. Translate into English: В современных рыночных условиях ни одно коммерческое предприятие не может вести дела без рекламы в том или ином виде. Прежде всего, реклама несет в себе информацию, которая обычно в сжатой форме привлекает внимание потенциальных покупателей своей эмоциональной окраской. Следует заметить, что, если реклама — это всегда информация, то информация — не всегда реклама. В условиях товарного производства связь производства и потребления диктуется рынком, то есть отношениями продавцов и покупателей в процессе товарного обмена. Реклама является связующим звеном рынка, поскольку, распространяя информацию о наличии товаров, условиях их покупки и потребления, участвует в формировании товарного предложения, а тем самым — и спроса. 4. Answer the following questions: 1. What were the ancient methods of advertising? 2. What are the specifi c features of advertising? 3. What are the most memorable elements of advertising? 4. Can our industrialized world exist without advertising? Why? Advertising is impersonal, usually paid communication intended to inform, educate, persuade and remind. Advertising is a sophisticated
form of communication that must work with other marketing tools and business elements to be successful. Advertising must be interruptive — that is, it must make you stop thumbing through the newspaper or thinking about your day long enough to read or hear the ad. Advertising must also be credible, unique, and memorable in order to work. And fi nally, assuming the actual advertising is built upon a solid positioning strategy, enough money must be spent to provide a media schedule for ad frequency, the most important element for ad memorability. Introduction Marketing is more than just distributing goods from the manufacturer to the fi nal customer. It comprises all the stages between creation of the product and the after-market which follows the eventual sale. One of these stages is advertising. The stages are like links in a chain, and the chain will break if one of the links is weak. Advertising is therefore as important as every other stage or link, and each depends on the other for success. The product or service itself, its naming, packaging, pricing and distribution, are all refl ected in advertising, which has been called the lifeblood of an organization. Without advertising, the products or services cannot fl ow to the distributors or sellers and on to the consumers or users. Early forms. Advertising belongs to the modern industrial world, and to those countries which are developing and becoming industrialized. In the past when a shopkeeper or stall- holder had only to show and shout his goods to passers-by, advertising as we know it today hardly existed. Early forms of advertising were signs such as the inn sign, the red-and-white striped barber’s pole, the apothecary’s jar of colored liquid and the wheelwright’s wheel, some of which have survived until today. Effect of urban growth. The need for advertising developed with the expansion of population and the growth of towns with their shops and large stores; mass production in factories; roads and railways to convey goods; and popular newspapers in which to advertise. The large quantities of goods being produced were made known by means of advertising to unknown customers who lived far from the place of manufacture. Advertising grew with the development of media, such as the coffee- house newspapers of the seventeenth century, and the arrival of advertising agencies nearly 200 years ago, mainly to handle government advertising.
Advertising and the modern world .If one looks at old pictures of horse buses in, say, late nineteenth-century London one will see that they carry advertisements for products famous today, a proof of the effectiveness of advertising. Thus the modern world depends on advertising. Without it, producers and distributors would be unable to sell, buyers would not know about and continue to remember products or services, and the modern industrial world would collapse. If factory output is to be maintained profi tably, advertising must be powerful and continuous. Mass production requires mass consumption which in turn requires advertising to the mass market through the mass media. Advertising involvement. Although advertising is listed as a single element it is associated with almost every other element, borrowing from them or interpreting them. The volume, emphasis and timing of advertising will depend on the product life cycle situation. For instance, at the introductory or recycling stages, the weight of advertising will be heavier than at the maturity or decline stages. Marketing research will provide evidence of motives, preferences and attitudes which will infl uence not only the copy platform or advertising theme but the choice of media through which to express it. Naming and branding may be initiated by the advertising department or agency, and clearly plays an important role in advertisement design. The product image will be projected by advertising. The market segment will decide the tone or style of advertising, and the choice of media. Pricing can play an important part in the appeal of the copy. Is the product value for money, a bargain or a luxury? Pricing can be a very competitive sales argument. People are very price conscious. The product mix has many applications. In advertising, one product may be associated with another, or each brand may require a separate campaign. Packaging can be a vital aspect of advertising, as when pack recognition is sought. It is itself a form of advertising, especially at the point-of-sale, as in a supermarket when the package often has to identify the product and literally sell it off the shelf. Distribution involves trade advertising such as by direct mail, in the trade press and at exhibitions. The sales force has to be familiarized with advertising campaigns which will support their efforts in the fi eld. Market education is a public relations activity aimed at creating a favorable market situation in which advertising will work. Corporate and fi nancial public relations often use institutional advertising in the business press. Test marketing requires
a miniature advertising campaign simulating the future national campaign. Advertising research includes copy-testing, circulation and readership surveys and statistics, recall tests, tracking studies and cost- per-reply and cost-per-conversion-to-sales fi gures. Sales promotion can augment or even replace traditional advertising. The after-market calls for advertising to make customers aware of post-sales services. The maintenance of customer interest and loyalty may be achieved by advertising which promotes additional uses and accessories, or simply reminds.
UNIT 2 Types of Advertising Task 1. Translate the underlined passage into Russian. 2. Give the examples of different kinds of advertising in your town. 3. Translate the following into English. Реклама на транспорте представляет собой различные реклам- ные сообщения, размещенные на транспортных средствах. Для наружной рекламы существует пять наиболее важных правил: 1) часто попадаться на глаза; 2) привлекать к себе внимание; 3) быть краткой; 4) быть без труда читаемой на ходу; 5) быть понятной. Descriptive advertising. This type of advertising gives the most: important facts about the product. It is the cheapest form of advertising and is used a lot by the small trader selling through the local paper. It will usually say: 1 what the product is; 2 how much it will cost; 3 where it may be obtained. Example: 1972 Ford Escort $500. Telephone London 1234. Persuasive advertising This type of advertising tries to persuade people that the product which is being advertised has a special quality or usefulness which makes it much better than other similar products. It is used a lot in television advertising where consumers are persuaded to think that if they buy that product they will become very popular or very happy. This is a psychological approach, and it is hoped by the advertiser that people will be persuaded to buy the product. The method uses ‘association of ideas’. Brand names such as Guinness and Oxo are used in persuasive advertising. Example: 1983 Ford Capri $2000 — good condition — low mileage, a bargain, fi rst to see will buy this attractive car. Advertising media Newspapers There are both national newspapers and local newspapers. Advertising in the national press is usually much more expensive than advertising in the local press. Both types of advertising are sold by the column centimeter, the half page and the page. A page in a national newspaper may cost many thousands of pounds for one day.
This is because national newspapers have very large circulations (they are read by a lot of people). Television. Television advertising in Great Britain is controlled by the Television Act 1954. It is the most expensive kind of advertising and costs many thousands of pounds (on a national network) for just a few seconds of television time. Charges are made by the second. If the advertisement is shown at a time when relatively few people are watching, then it will be cheaper. If it is shown - at a time when many people are watching (peak viewing time) then the charges are much higher. Television advertising is mostly used by large organizations and the nationalized industries. Radio. This kind of advertising is much cheaper than television advertising. It is very popular in the United States. The most popular radio station in Europe is Radio Luxembourg, which carries a lot of commercial advertising. In Great Britain radio advertising is usually carried by local independent radio stations. Hoardings. Hoarding advertisements are usually put up in eye-catching positions at the side of the road. The cost of the advertisement will depend on where the hoarding is and how large it is. If it is in a very good position and near the centre of the city where it will be seen by many potential customers, then it will probably be quite expensive. The sites are usually rented out to clients on a monthly basis by an advertising agency. Handbills These are quite often used by local traders to advertise their goods and services. They are expensive in labor costs and are not very effective. Transport .The inside and outside of buses, trains, vans and other kinds of public transport are used in transport advertising. The most expensive position is where the advertisement is most likely to be seen by the public such as the back of a bus or the inside of a bus, especially at the front where the potential customer will be seated looking at it. The most inexpensive position is upstairs on the bus or at the back inside the bus. It is diffi cult to tell whether transport advertising is effective. Cinemas. The cinema screen is used for advertising by local and national traders. Like transport advertising, it is diffi cult to judge how effective cinema advertising is. Neon displays. These are mostly used by large fi rms. The signs are usually displayed in city centers. Technical journals. These are mostly used as an advertising medium by large manufacturing and distributing companies. They are read by persons and companies who are interested in this particular kind
of product and the journals will also contain other information that is useful to the readers. Technical journals are usually printed once a month. Examples are The Hairdresser, The Radio and Television Magazine and the Farmers Live Stock Journal. Advertising in technical journals is a very good method of advertising. Trade fairs and shows. The Motor Show, the Boat Show, the Radio Show and the Ideal Homes Exhibition are a few examples of trade fairs and shows. Dairy products may be advertised at agricultural shows. Aircraft may be advertised and displayed at the Farnborough Air Show. The disadvantage is that the shows and exhibitions are expensive to organize. It is very diffi cult for advertisers to tell whether an articular advertisement or method of advertising has been effective, but there is no doubt that without advertising the customer would never hear of some products. Perhaps the most effective advertising of all is the recommendation of the product by a satisfi ed customer to a potential customer – advertising by word of mouth. The language of advertising Here are some methods used in persuasive advertising. Read them quickly. Decide which appeal to you and which don’t. Now think of an example for each type from your country. persuasive advertising 1. Repetition. The simplest kind of advertising. A slogan is repeated so often that we begin to associate a brand name with a particular product or service. 2. Endorsement. A popular personality is used in the advertisement. 3. Emotional appeal. Advertising often appeals to basics such as mother-love, sex, manliness, feminity. 4. Scientifi c authority. Sometimes the advert shows a person in a white coat (i.e. a scientist) telling us about the product. More often it mentions “miracle ingredients” or “scientifi c testing” to persuade us. 5. “Keeping up with the jones’s”, an appeal to pure snob value. You want to appeal to be richer or more successful than your neighbors. 6. Comparison. The advert lists the qualities of a product in direct comparison with rival products. 7. An appeal to fear or anxiety. This type is similar to 3, but works on our fears.
8. Association of ideas. This is usually visual. Until it became illegal in Britain, cigarette advertising showed attractive, healthy people smoking in beautiful rural situations. 9. Information. If a product is new, it may be enough to show it and explain what it does. 10. Special offers/free gifts. This is a very simple and direct appeal — it’s half a price! 11. Anti-advertising. This is a modern version which appeals to the British sense of humor. It makes fun of the techniques of advertising. Do you agree that the only background for the problems with brand names would be: - wrong pronunciation; - wrong association; - wrong translation?
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